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Concept of shared experience

Concept of shared experience


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Michael Stevens/VSauce summarized one aspect he realized after a 3 days isolation experiment as follows:

… being able to talk to people and share my experiences - I realized how important that was.
If you only have your own experiences, you are not fully having them. You have to have someone else to listen to them and react to them, and then you've fully experienced them.

Ref: https://youtu.be/iqKdEhx-dD4?t=31m55s

Is there a name for this idea?

I guess this idea and related concepts have been postulated in social psychology or social philosophy before.


Vino In My Dino

Time for a check in and to see how you are doing as we have come along together on this pandemic journey over the last 40 weeks. How are you doing as the days get shorter and we look to the New Year to bring us all some relief? I do know many of us are facing this pandemic with weary souls. A lockdown…again? Stricter guidelines…again? Seems like we’ll be wearing our masks for an eternity.

I was talking with a friend the other day, COVID-style via Zoom. We were shooting the breeze about the changes in the holiday season this year because, you know, COVID. I realized this is a rare time for our nation, state, town and neighborhoods-we are all sharing in similar experiences during this pandemic: staying at home, gathering together less and much smaller groups, and stemming the tide of the virus by following guidelines. We make changes in how we go about our lives and this month how we celebrate the holidays. At the very least we are required to wear masks and keep our distance out in public. Many more of us stay within our bubbles, work remotely or, if you are an essential worker, strive to remain safe. When I began to think about the virus, invisible except by the numbers, it struck me that this is one of those times where we are sharing an experience. We are in the same boat, some in deeper, more challenging water than others however.

As defined by my favorite resource Google: A shared experience is exactly what it sounds like: seeing, hearing, or doing the same thing as someone else. Although it's a simple concept, shared experiences have a deep impact on human socialization because they enhance each person's individual experience. A shared experience is any experience that causes individuals to identify with each other. Examples like these: Language, Nature, Art, Holidays, Meals, Rites of Passage, Hardship, Humor, Cultural Traditions. This pandemic is an experience we all share and really are in it together. We follow the rules not only for our own protection but the care and concern of those who are in need of protection.

This image was sent to me by Colin our Wine Club Manager who has two young children at home-Milo and Lucie. Outside of my grandsons he has the cutest kids around. Sometimes he takes Milo to work with him to pack up wine and the like because he is one of our staff members working remotely and 7 year old Milo is distance learning at home. While waiting for dad to finish Milo drew this picture of our iconic sign outside of our tasting room. It is a great rendition and he has talent! (You may not know this connection but his great-grandfather Elmo Barbieri worked in our tasting room years ago.) Father and son will remember this time-a memory they wouldn’t have if Milo attended school. A silver lining memory for the future.

The silver linings aren’t always easy to see while we are in the midst of things like the holidays and this pandemic. During these times it is worth taking a step back and seeing the world through the future, to a time when we look back and realize we made a way to reach out or not be discouraged, or when we look back at this time we spent working remotely, or pulling our hair out at trying to help children distance learn this shared experience will be what we remember. A milestone, a standing stone, a marker: remember the time we…


Aristotle on the Concept of Shared Life

According to the terms of Aristotle's Politics, to be alive is to instantiate a form of rule. In the growth of plants, the perceptual capacities and movement of animals, and the impulse that motivates thinking, speaking, and deliberating Aristotle sees the working of a powerful generative force come to expression in an array of forms of life, and it is in these, if anywhere, that one could find the resources needed for a philosophic account of the nature of life as such. Aristotle on the Concept of Shared Life explores this intertwining of power and life in Aristotle's thought, and argues that Aristotle locates the foundation of human political life in the capacity to share one's most vital activities with others. A comprehensive study of the relationality which shared life reveals tells us something essential about Aristotle's approach to human political phenomena namely, that they arise as forms of intimacy whose political character can only be seen when viewed in the context of Aristotle's larger inquiries into animal life, where they emerge not as categorically distinct from animal sociality, but as intensifications of it. Tracing the human capacity to share life thus illuminates the interrelation between the zoological, ethical, and political lenses through which Aristotle pursues his investigation of the polis. In following this connection, this volume also examines — and critically evaluates — the reception of Aristotle's political thought in some of the most influential concepts of contemporary critical theory.


Ghost hunters haunted by new terror: competition

We've heard of ghosts that harass the living. Now people are starting to harass the ghosts. All across America, novice investigative teams are creeping through people's homes at night, trying to get rid of their paranormal pests.

“I had no idea that was even possible,” he says. For him, “shared-death experiences didn’t even exist.”

It wasn’t until Peters heard Moody give a lecture eight years after his encounter with Ron that Peters first heard the term.

He doesn’t think his encounter with Ron was an accident. He believes Ron was trying to return the comfort he had given to him.

“I think what he was saying to me was, ‘Don’t despair. Life goes on. Look how awesome it is,’ ’’ Peters says. “It was a true gift of love on his part.”

Or, as the skeptics would say, perhaps it was just Peters rewriting the moment to help himself accept a difficult loss. Peters has considered that possibility but says he saw something else that convinced him Ron knew he was there.

He says that when he plopped back into his body after hovering over Ron’s bed, Ron made no gesture. His eyes stayed closed and his body remained still.


The concept of shared healthcare decision-making

This chapter will discuss the literature review that was undertaken for this thesis. A review of the relevant literature will encompass an analysis of the doctrine of informed consent as applied in South Africa jurisprudence, followed by the socio-legal aspects of IC in South Africa and the potential impact of the cultural milieu and multiculturalism on IC practice in South Africa. This will be followed by an analysis of the Hippocratic tradition and the evolution of the IC doctrine, as well as a critical discussion of the philosophical concepts of autonomy from a Kantian (duty based), 1010 and Millian or utilitarian 1011 perspectives. 1012 This is followed by analysis of the concept of patients’ rights, shared healthcare decision-making, and the rights of vulnerable population groups.
According to Polit and Beck, 1013 a literature review is usually done to assist the researcher to comprehend and extend his or her knowledge regarding the phenomenon under study. It also helps the researcher to determine whether the phenomenon is worth studying and assists in determining the scope of the study, so that research can be limited to a needed area of inquiry. 1014 A review of the literature may also help the researcher to determine the extent to which the topic under study is covered in the existing body of knowledge. 1015 Moreover, the literature review shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the topic under study, it relates the current study to other larger and ongoing debates in the literature, in this case the medico-legal cases and analysis regarding the doctrine of IC, by filling in gaps and extending prior studies. Hence a literature review provides a framework for establishing the importance of the present study and a basis for comparison of the results of the present study to findings by other researchers working on the same phenomenon or in the same area of inquiry. 1016,1017

The legal doctrine of informed consent in South Africa Constitutional rights to informed consent

Informed consent before medical procedres is a constitutionally protected right in South Africa. These constitutionally protected rights to bodily integrity and security have been tested in South African courts in the cases of Minister of Safety and Security v Gaqa 1018 and Minister of Safety and Security v Xaba (hereinafter the Xaba case). 1019 In both cases, the police sought a court order to compel an accused person to undergo a surgical procedure in order to extract a bullet to be used as evidence in their prosecution. In the Xaba case, 1020 the court ruled that granting such an order would violate the defendant’s constitutional rights to a fair trial, bodily integrity and privacy. 1021 By contrast, such an order was granted by a judge in the case of Minister of Safety v Gaqa (hereinafter the Gaqa case), 1022 where the judge felt that there were grounds within the Criminal Procedure Act, 1023 which allowed use of reasonable force by the police in the public interest. 1024 In both cases, the defendants sought protection under the constitutionally protected rights to bodily and psychological integrity as enshrined in section 12(2) of the Constitution. 1025 In the Gaqa case, Desai J granted the order for the extraction of the bullets, basing his judgment on the fact that the rights enshrined in section12 were limited rights when read together with section 36 of the Constitution, which provides that rights in the constitution could be limited by a law of general application in a democratic society. 1026 The court further held that this limitation was supported by the Criminal Procedure Act, 1027 which stipulates that the police could use any reasonable force to procure evidence from suspected criminals. 1028 On the other hand, Southwood J denied the police the right in the Xaba case, 1029 basing his decision on the rights to bodily and psychological integrity enshrined within the Constitution, arguing that the judgment in the former case was wrong in terms of section 12 of the Constitution. 1030 Further, it was held that relief could not be provided by the Criminal Procedure Act since the Act did not allow forced surgical removal of an object from the body of a person. 1031
Some commentators argued that the limitation of rights applied in Gaqa case by Desai J refers only to the limitation of rights in the Bill of Rights and specifies that those limitations apply “only in terms of law of a general application to the extent that the limitation is reasonable and justifiable in an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom.” 1032 The authors contend that court adjudication may not be considered a law of general application and such abrogation should probably be done via legislative mandate, as suggested by Southwood J in the Xaba case. 1033
One may conclude this section by noting what has been suggested by others, namely that: “The ease with which any jurisdiction is capable of upholding patient’s rights depends on its history and jurisprudence as it does on its willingness to make appropriate modifications or enthusiasm for change.” 1034 In South Africa, the constitutionally protected rights to bodily integrity and security as well as the right to IC have been codified in theNHA, 1035 and further enshrined in the Constitution and disseminated in the Patients Right Charter. 1036 These provisions and regulations are designed to assist in achieving the right of access to healthcare by all South African citizens. The Patients’ charter formally recognizes the patients’ right to IC during medical treatment. It has been advanced that the Charter provides an officially sanctioned baseline standard that can be referred to as tool for accountability to patients, HCPs and the broader civil society. 1037 Under South African law, health related autonomy rights are constitutionally protected as outlined in section 12 of the Constitution, with section 12(1) stating that “everyone has the right to freedom and security of the person,” whilst section12(2) stipulates that:
Everyone has the right to bodily and psychological integrity, which includes the right to:

  • To make decisions concerning reproduction
  • To security in control over their body and
  • Not to be subjected to medical and scientific experiments without their informed consent. 1038

Historical origins of informed consent in South Africa

According to Van Oosten, patient consent, as a requirement for all lawful medical interventions, is a well-established principle in South African common law. 1039 The earliest leading cases in this area were the cases of Stoffberg v Elliot 1040 and the Esterhuizen case. 1041 In the former case, a patient whose penis was wrongfully amputated without his consent sued his doctors for damages in action for assault. The court agreed that any treatment done without the necessary consent is and interference with and individuals bodily integrity and can lead to charges of assault and award of damages. 1042 In the Esterhuizen case a 10-year-old child who was diagnosed with Kaposi’s sarcoma, a form of skin cancer was initially treated with superficial radiation for the condition with both parents’ consent. Later, however, because of recurrence of the tumour, she was subjected to extensive radiation therapy, which resulted in severe burns and tissue damage necessitating amputation of her limbs. This was done without the express consent of her guardians. In action for damages for assault against the treating physician, the court held that while the superficial radiation was duly performed with appropriate consent from the parents, the latter procedure was performed without full disclosure, knowledge and consent of the child’s mother although there was adequate time to obtain such consent. The court rejected the treating doctor and hospital’s argument that the fact that her grandfather and parents had brought the child to hospital and previously consented to a similar treatment implied consent for the more radical procedure. The court also rejected arguments that the treatment was in the best interests of the child. The court held rather, that because the radical treatment was vastly different from the former superficial radiation given to the child, it was necessary that the child’s mother should have been adequately informed of the dangers inherent in the radical treatment for such consent to be considered valid. 1043
More recently in the Castell case, 1044 it has been argued that the judgment of the court in this case seems to have introduced the prudent patient standard of information disclosure and IC into South African medical jurisprudence. 1045 Further, the SCA revisited this judgement in the case of Broude v McIntosh, 1046 but did not overrule this decision despite some technical reservations, thereby reaffirming the prudent patient and material risks standards as the required standard for information disclosure in South Africa. 1047 The consequences of the court’s decision in the Castell case 1048 on South African medical jurisprudence were that the following principles were generally accepted, according to Van Oosten: 1049

  • a shift from medical paternalism to patient autonomy
  • A shift from the ‘reasonable doctor’ standard to the ‘prudent patient’ standard
  • A shift in disclosure to the ‘material risk’ standard, where the level of disclosure required is what a reasonable patient would consider pertinent before making a decision
  • The court appears to place the patients’ informed consent within the framework of volenti non fit injuria or voluntary assumption of risk rather than delict.
    In 2004, enactment of the NHA 1050 codified the requirements for IC into South African healthcare law specifying the nature and aspects of information to be disclosed prior to IC as discussed in chapters 1 and 2 of this thesis. In terms of South African common law, the issue of how much information should be disclosed to a patient has been the subject of debate starting from the case of Lymberg v Jeffries 1925, 1051 where the court was of the opinion that a “doctor is not obliged to disclose all the conceivable complications that may arise during a medical procedure.” However the judgment of Ackerman J in Castellv De Greef, 1052 suggested that a doctor is obliged to warn the patient of all the ‘material risks’ inherent in the treatment, where the material risks are based on a ‘prudent patient standard’. 1053 Therefore, the requirement for information disclosure in South Africa tends towards the practice in North America where libertarian rights-based autonomy is predominant. Furthermore, section 6 of the NHA requests that as part of IC, “every HCP should inform the user of the user&rsquos health status except where it would be contrary to the user’s best interests,” which would include “the range of diagnostic procedures and treatment options available, the benefits, risks, costs and consequences generally associated with each option. The user’s right to refuse health services and the implications thereof”. 1054 It may be said that this appears to reaffirm the requirement for disclosure of all material risks with appropriate exceptions.

CHAPTER 1- ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTH AFRICAN CASE LAW SINCE THE CASTELL CASE AND ENACTMENT OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH ACT 2003.
1.3 INFORMED CONSENT, THE SOCIO-CULTURAL MILIEU AND PATIENT RIGHTS’ IN SOUTH AFRICA
1.4 JUSTIFICATIONS FOR USING EMPIRICAL METHODS TO STUDY INFORMED CONSENT
1.5 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
1.8 STUDY POPULATIONS AND SOURCES OF DATA
1.9 RESEARCH SETTING
1.10 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
1.11 SAMPLING PROCEDURES
1.13 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.14 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.15 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
1.16 DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS AND TERMS
1.17 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1 AND CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER 2 – BACKGROUND
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 CONSENT TO TREATMENT
2.3 WHAT MAKES CONSENT VALID?
2.4 ELEMENTS OF A TRUE, REAL OR VALID CONSENT
2.5 VOLUNTARINESS
2.6 INFORMATION DISCLOSURE
2.7 SOME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONSENT TO MEDICAL TREATMENT VERSUS BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
2.8 WHAT SHOULD GENERALLY BE DISCLOSED TO A PATIENT BY HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS?
2.9 EXCEPTIONS TO FULL INFORMATION DISCLOSURE DURING INFORMED CONSENT
2.10 UNDERSTANDING OR COMPREHENSION OF INFORMATION DISCLOSED
2.11 CONSENT, AGREEMENT OR AUTHORIZATION OF TREATMENT
2.12 SO, WHAT IS VALID OR TRUE CONSENT?
2.13 TYPES OF CONSENT AND THE VALIDITY OF CONSENT FORMS
2.14 LIMITS, DURATION, WITHDRAWALS, AND REFUSAL OF CONSENT
2.15 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3 – REVIEW OF LITERATURE
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 THE LEGAL DOCTRINE OF INFORMED CONSENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
3.3 DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTH AFRICAN COMMON LAW ON INFORMED CONSENT SINCE THE JUDGMENT IN THE CASTELL V DE GREEF AND ENACTMENT OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH ACT 2003
3.4 OTHER LEGAL ISSUES PERTAINING TO THE DOCTRINE OF INFORMED CONSENT IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL LAWS
3.5 INFORMED CONSENT, THE SOCIO-CULTURAL MILIEU AND PATIENTS’ RIGHTS IN SOUTH AFRICA
3.6 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTICULTURALISM, RIGHT TO HEALTH, AND INDIVIDUAL AUTONOMY
3.7 THE HIPPOCRATIC TRADITION AND THE HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF IC IN MEDICAL PRACTICE
3.8 SOCIOHISTORICAL PHASES OF INFORMED CONSENT BASED ON STRUCTURATIONAL ANALYSIS
3.9 SOME PHILOSOPHICAL ARGUMENTS RELATED TO AUTONOMY AND THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCTRINE
3.10 PATIENTS’ RIGHTS
3.11 THE CONCEPT OF SHARED HEALTHCARE DECISION-MAKING
3.12 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 Methodological considerations
4.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
4.4 TRIANGULATION
4.5 THE VALUE OF USING EMPIRICAL RESEARCH METHODS TO STUDY INFORMED CONSENT
4.6 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
4.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTICIPATED OUTPUTS .
4.8 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE STUDY
4.9 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.12 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
4.13 DATA COLLECTION
4.14 STATISTICAL METHODS
4.15 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROVALS
4.16 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND FINDINGS FROM THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH STUDY AND THE IMPLICATIONS 262
CHAPTER 5: FINDINGS ON QUALITY OF INFORMED CONSENT AS PRACTISED BY MEDICAL DOCTORS IN SOUTH AFRICA
5.2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
5.3 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
5.4 RESULTS: FINDINGS FROM THE DOCTORS’ STUDY
5.5 DISCUSSION
5.6 CONCLUSIONS
5.7 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6: FINDINGS ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF INFORMED CONSENT BY
PROFESSIONAL NURSES IN SOUTH AFRICA
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 KNOWLEDGE OF ETHICS, HUMAN RIGHTS AND MEDICAL LAW AMONG SOUTH AFRICAN NURSES
6.3 THE DOCTRINE OF INFORMED CONSENT AND RESPECT FOR AUTONOMY .
6.4 THE LEGAL DOCTRINE OF IC IN SOUTH AFRICA AND OTHER COMMON LAW JURISDICTIONS
6.5 IC REGULATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA SINCE ENACTMENT OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH ACT
6.6 SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS POTENTIALLY INFLUENCING NURSING PRACTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA
6.7 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
6.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
6.9 RESULTS
6.10 DISCUSSION
6.11 LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY
6.12 CONCLUSIONS
6.13 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7: PATIENTS’ PERCEPTIONS ON INFORMED CONSENT PRACTICES BY HEALTHCAREPROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICA
7.1 A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THIS STUDY
7.2 INTRODUCTION
7.3 MATERIALS AND METHODS
7.4 RESULTS
7.5 DISCUSSION
7.6 LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY
7.7 CONCLUSIONS
7.8 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8: SYNTHESIS AND DISCUSSION
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTH AFRICAN JURISPRUDENCE ON INFORMED CONSENT SINCE ENACTMENT OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH ACT 2003
8.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF USING EMPIRICAL METHODS TO STUDY INFORMED CONSENT
8.4 THE MEANING OF CONSENT TO TREATMENT
8.5 THE VALIDITY OF INFORMED CONSENT
8.6 STANDARDS OF INFORMATION DISCLOSURE
8.7 COMPREHENSION OF INFORMATION DISCLOSED
8.8 SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS IMPACTING ON INFORMED CONSENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
8.9 FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY
8.10 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM ANALYSIS OF CASE LAW AND CURRENT SOUTH AFRICAN LEGISLATION
9.3 CONCLUSIONS TO BE DRAWN FROM THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH STUDY
9.4 LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY
9.5 CENTRAL CONCLUSIONS
9.6 RECOMMENDATIONS

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
AN INVESTIGATION OF INFORMED CONSENT IN CLINICAL PRACTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA


How to Reimagine Our Streets Around the Concept of Shared Space

Our streets are carefully, perhaps overly, engineered. In the best cases space is carefully allotted to each different mode, but are we thinking about street design totally wrong?

CNU22 featured speakers from all over the world, from Bogotá to Toronto to Brighton. One plenary speaker from Bristol moved the audience with an idea called Shared Space that was beautifully simple and innovative, yet entirely new to most of the crowd.

Ben Hamilton-Baillie is a British urban designer, “recovering” architect and self-taught in the area of transportation planning. His presentation focused on explaining Shared Space as an urban design technique that can alleviate the frequently problematic interface between pedestrians, cyclists, automobiles and the public realm.

As the name would suggest, Shared Space advances the idea that streets themselves can be a seamless part of public space that is shared by all users. The method came from the Netherlands, where Hamilton-Baillie studied under transportation engineer Hans Monderman and Joost Váhl, who developed the Dutch woonerfs where pedestrians and cyclists have priority on roadways.

The concept also integrates a thoughtful assessment of human psychology as it relates to driving. “It’s essential to understand the changing view of the nature of risk,” Hamilton-Baillie explained. “Hazards keep us aware of our environment and allow us to adapt our behavior.”

This seems counter-intuitive, but it was effectively explained through an example of two cities in the Tel Aviv region of Israel.

Bnei-Brak, located east of Tel Aviv, is composed of largely low-income, ultra-conservative Jews. Ramat-Gan, also located east of Tel Aviv, is home to a more moderate, middle-income Jewish population. Hamilton-Baillie explained that the people of Bnei-Brak are known throughout the region as being unruly pedestrians. Adults and children cross streets with disregard for traffic. Locals know that they must be vigilant when driving there.

Conversely, the residents of Ramat-Gan respect pedestrian rules, crosswalks, and jaywalk less frequently. Drivers are more at ease in Ramat-Gan.

Perhaps counter-intuitively, there is a higher instance of pedestrian fatality in Ramat-Gan. Drivers in Bnei-Brak tend to cautiously drive at lower speeds, aware that there is a greater risk of a pedestrian appearing in the road. One can see in this example that increased risk makes for more attentive drivers.

Shared Space utilizes risk in the form of mixing cyclists, pedestrians and motorists on streets, and relies on the idea that removing lines and signaling allows for social protocols to take over more strongly than signs. This, Hamilton-Baillie said, is called “friction”, or natural cues that guide a driver’s speed. There is already an increasing awareness in North America that things like narrow streets, street trees and buildings built to the right-of-way naturally induce drivers to reduce speed without a speed-limit.

One might think that this friction would create delays, but evidence from project implementation has found the opposite, as did Hans Monderman’s projects in the Netherlands. And post-project evaluations, like in Poynton, UK, have confirmed the efficacy of Shared Space designs.

Poynton is a city southeast of Manchester. It is a throughway for traffic between the two larger cities of Macclesfield and Stockport. In this instance, vehicles were found to be passing on the main thoroughfare at a rate of 26,000 per day, many of which were trucks. The initial approach to relieve congestion was the construction of additional lanes of traffic.

Shared Space, however, was applied as part of a regeneration scheme in Poynton. The first task for Hamilton-Baillie’s consultancy was to “remove every trace of traffic engineering.”

Three lanes of cars were reduced to one, signaling was removed, additional on-street parking was introduced, and sidewalks were widened. There was increased edge friction through vertical elements within the driver’s line of vision.

Even after the removal of two lanes and signals, traffic flow stayed the same and pedestrian traffic increased five-fold. Before the project, 16 of 32 shops in town were boarded up but within one to two years after project completion, all shop spaces in the business district were occupied.

Streets were able to concurrently be part of Poynton public space and serve through traffic – the change in aesthetics was remarkable.

It is certain that freight and car movement is critical to the healthy functioning of any economy. This fact is not contested. But since civilizations started building cities, they have been venues for people to roam – sometimes at odds with our economic necessity to move people and goods through them quickly.

Fast big things and slow small things do not mix well.

Shared Space demonstrates that these seemingly incompatible users actually function better when mixed within the city fabric – cars move more fluidly when drivers are forced to react to their surroundings instead of their actions being dictated to them. People are safer, too.

The outcome is that streets become a different kind of public space, where mobility means interacting with one’s surroundings.

When asked if he thought famously impatient North American drivers could adapt to the concept, he paused for a moment and said, “Everywhere Shared Space has been applied, I was told that the drivers in the locale couldn’t adapt. In every case they did.”


Bergsma, J. and Fieret, G.: 1980, ‘t Spreekuur. Naar de huisarts en terug’, Sub. Fac. Psychology, Univ. Tilburg, 1980.

Bergsma, J. and Flohr, P.: 1982, ‘De Spreekkamer. Naar binnen en weer naar huis’, Sub. Fac. Psychology, Univ. Tilburg, 1982.

Bergsma, J. and Visser, A. P.: 1982, ‘Methodische Dilemma's in gezondheidszorgonderzoek’, Gezondheid en Samenleving, 3, No. 4.

Duff, R. S. and Ross, C. E.: 1982, ‘Returning to the doctor: The effect of client characteristics, type of practice, and experience with care’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, pp. 119–131.

Verhoeff, E.: 1979, Gebruik van gezondheidszorgvoorzieningen in Nederland, Diss., Univ. of Nymegen.


Bergsma, J. and Fieret, G.: 1980, ‘t Spreekuur. Naar de huisarts en terug’, Sub. Fac. Psychology, Univ. Tilburg, 1980.

Bergsma, J. and Flohr, P.: 1982, ‘De Spreekkamer. Naar binnen en weer naar huis’, Sub. Fac. Psychology, Univ. Tilburg, 1982.

Bergsma, J. and Visser, A. P.: 1982, ‘Methodische Dilemma's in gezondheidszorgonderzoek’, Gezondheid en Samenleving, 3, No. 4.

Duff, R. S. and Ross, C. E.: 1982, ‘Returning to the doctor: The effect of client characteristics, type of practice, and experience with care’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, pp. 119–131.

Verhoeff, E.: 1979, Gebruik van gezondheidszorgvoorzieningen in Nederland, Diss., Univ. of Nymegen.


Key Study: Culturally-specific Symptoms of Experiencing Trauma in Ugandan Children (Betancourt, et al. 2009)

Before we look at the methodology of the study, it’s important to know some context about what is happening in Uganda, a country that has had ongoing conflict for over 20 years. Nearly 2 million people have lost their homes and are living in camps. Children are often abducted to become soldiers in one of the armies, the Lord’s Resistance Army. As you can imagine, many children living in camps have experienced and been exposed to extremely traumatic events (see video below).

Previous research on Ugandan children has shown that there are high levels of PTSD in these youths who have experienced traumatic events related to the war. However, some studies are criticized because they use Western diagnostic systems (e.g. the DSM) to understand the symptoms of Ugandan children.

Therefore, one of the main aims of Betancourt et al.’s (2009) study was to understand the psychosocial problems affecting Ugandan children from the perspective of the children and their caretakers. This would help organizations that were trying to help these children deliver better care and treatment for their symptoms.

The researchers used a purposive sample of 10-17 year old Ugandan children and their caretakers and conducted interviews to get their data. One of the interview methods they used was “Free List” which is when a question is asked in a way that encourages a list as a response. One of their FL questions was “What are the problems of children in this camp?”

Their research found some of the problems related to locally defined symptoms, including:

  • Two tam: which has symptoms similar to depression and was described as a problem of having “lots of thoughts,” including thoughts of guilt, hopelessness and suicide.
  • Kumu: this is a symptom relating to experiencing long-lasting grief or sadness.
  • Ma Lwor: this has anxiety-like symptoms and includes increased anxiety and arousal, not liking noise and thinking people are chasing you. It has similarities to PTSD’s symptoms related to re-experiencing and hyper-arousal.

What we can see from this sample of culturally-specific symptoms that the researches found in Ugandan children was that while these are similar to Western mood and anxiety disorders like depression and PTSD, they contain culturally unique elements.

This study is a good example of an emic concept (i.e. approach to research) because the researchers have no intent of generalizing their findings to other cultures. While they are by necessity drawing comparisons to Western symptoms of the disease (the necessity being so that the symptoms can be understood), they are not trying to find universal symptoms of PTSD, but rather understanding the culturally unique symptoms faced by the children. With knowledge of these unique problems, organizations (such as UNICEF) can provide more effective care and treatment for these kids.

In the following video from TIME Magazine’s youtube channel, you can hear the harrowing first hand account of a young boy abducted by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA).


How Collective Consciousness Holds Society Together

What is it that holds society together? This was the central question that preoccupied Durkheim as he wrote about the new industrial societies of the 19th century. By considering the documented habits, customs, and beliefs of traditional and primitive societies, and comparing those to what he saw around him in his own life, Durkheim crafted some of the most important theories in sociology. He concluded that society exists because unique individuals feel a sense of solidarity with each other. This is why we can form collectives and work together to achieve community and functional societies. The collective consciousness, or conscience collective as he wrote it in French, is the source of this solidarity.

Durkheim first introduced his theory of the collective consciousness in his 1893 book "The Division of Labor in Society". (Later, he would also rely on the concept in other books, including "Rules of the Sociological Method", "Suicide", and "The Elementary Forms of Religious Life".) In this text, he explains that the phenomenon is "the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to the average members of a society." Durkheim observed that in traditional or primitive societies, religious symbols, discourse, beliefs, and rituals fostered the collective consciousness. In such cases, where social groups were quite homogenous (not distinct by race or class, for example), the collective consciousness resulted in what Durkheim termed a "mechanical solidarity" — in effect an automatic binding together of people into a collective through their shared values, beliefs, and practices.

Durkheim observed that in the modern, industrialized societies that characterized Western Europe and the young United States when he wrote, which functioned via a division of labor, an "organic solidarity" emerged based on the mutual reliance individuals and groups had on others in order to allow for a society to function. In cases such as these, religion still played an important role in producing collective consciousness among groups of people affiliated with various religions, but other social institutions and structures would also work to produce the collective consciousness necessary for this more complex form of solidarity, and rituals outside of religion would play important roles in reaffirming it.


Aristotle on the Concept of Shared Life

According to the terms of Aristotle's Politics, to be alive is to instantiate a form of rule. In the growth of plants, the perceptual capacities and movement of animals, and the impulse that motivates thinking, speaking, and deliberating Aristotle sees the working of a powerful generative force come to expression in an array of forms of life, and it is in these, if anywhere, that one could find the resources needed for a philosophic account of the nature of life as such. Aristotle on the Concept of Shared Life explores this intertwining of power and life in Aristotle's thought, and argues that Aristotle locates the foundation of human political life in the capacity to share one's most vital activities with others. A comprehensive study of the relationality which shared life reveals tells us something essential about Aristotle's approach to human political phenomena namely, that they arise as forms of intimacy whose political character can only be seen when viewed in the context of Aristotle's larger inquiries into animal life, where they emerge not as categorically distinct from animal sociality, but as intensifications of it. Tracing the human capacity to share life thus illuminates the interrelation between the zoological, ethical, and political lenses through which Aristotle pursues his investigation of the polis. In following this connection, this volume also examines — and critically evaluates — the reception of Aristotle's political thought in some of the most influential concepts of contemporary critical theory.


Vino In My Dino

Time for a check in and to see how you are doing as we have come along together on this pandemic journey over the last 40 weeks. How are you doing as the days get shorter and we look to the New Year to bring us all some relief? I do know many of us are facing this pandemic with weary souls. A lockdown…again? Stricter guidelines…again? Seems like we’ll be wearing our masks for an eternity.

I was talking with a friend the other day, COVID-style via Zoom. We were shooting the breeze about the changes in the holiday season this year because, you know, COVID. I realized this is a rare time for our nation, state, town and neighborhoods-we are all sharing in similar experiences during this pandemic: staying at home, gathering together less and much smaller groups, and stemming the tide of the virus by following guidelines. We make changes in how we go about our lives and this month how we celebrate the holidays. At the very least we are required to wear masks and keep our distance out in public. Many more of us stay within our bubbles, work remotely or, if you are an essential worker, strive to remain safe. When I began to think about the virus, invisible except by the numbers, it struck me that this is one of those times where we are sharing an experience. We are in the same boat, some in deeper, more challenging water than others however.

As defined by my favorite resource Google: A shared experience is exactly what it sounds like: seeing, hearing, or doing the same thing as someone else. Although it's a simple concept, shared experiences have a deep impact on human socialization because they enhance each person's individual experience. A shared experience is any experience that causes individuals to identify with each other. Examples like these: Language, Nature, Art, Holidays, Meals, Rites of Passage, Hardship, Humor, Cultural Traditions. This pandemic is an experience we all share and really are in it together. We follow the rules not only for our own protection but the care and concern of those who are in need of protection.

This image was sent to me by Colin our Wine Club Manager who has two young children at home-Milo and Lucie. Outside of my grandsons he has the cutest kids around. Sometimes he takes Milo to work with him to pack up wine and the like because he is one of our staff members working remotely and 7 year old Milo is distance learning at home. While waiting for dad to finish Milo drew this picture of our iconic sign outside of our tasting room. It is a great rendition and he has talent! (You may not know this connection but his great-grandfather Elmo Barbieri worked in our tasting room years ago.) Father and son will remember this time-a memory they wouldn’t have if Milo attended school. A silver lining memory for the future.

The silver linings aren’t always easy to see while we are in the midst of things like the holidays and this pandemic. During these times it is worth taking a step back and seeing the world through the future, to a time when we look back and realize we made a way to reach out or not be discouraged, or when we look back at this time we spent working remotely, or pulling our hair out at trying to help children distance learn this shared experience will be what we remember. A milestone, a standing stone, a marker: remember the time we…


Watch the video: The transformative power of shared experience. Peter Basham. TEDxRoyalTunbridgeWells (May 2022).