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Do children inherit intelligence from their mothers and not their fathers?

Do children inherit intelligence from their mothers and not their fathers?



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Since often journalists can misinterpret scientific studies, I am interested, if there are researchers in this field on this site, who can say to what extent is the statement in this article:

"Children inherit intelligence only from their mothers and not their fathers" - true?


The psychology-spot article mostly links to researches done on mice. Only three links are about human genetics. One is philosophical in nature, other two deal with mental retardation. This study says that:

"X chromosome contains a significantly higher number of genes that, when mutated, cause mental impairment".

We know that boys get their X chromosome from their mothers. Therefore, they inherit mental retardation from their mothers. But look at the terminology used in the research paper. They have not found some IQ value stored somewhere in the X chromosome. Therefore, we cannot say that mutations in the X chromosome is responsible for high intelligence as well (the study proposes such a link, but has no data to support it). There is a mystery here: if mothers carry key to mental retardation in sons, it must be a hidden trait in women because they do not exhibit that deviation as much as men.

This study takes mother's IQ into account, but it does not make any attempt to establish a direct link between the IQ of mother and son.

Conclusion: We can assume that boys inherit mental retardation from mothers (because boys get mother's X chromosome). We can not assume anything else yet, not from this study.

The following is pure speculation: Men have higher deviation in their intelligence Bell curve on both sides. If one side of it is linked to their mothers, the other side might as well be, but it probably has nothing to do with the intelligence of the mother. In my personal opinion, that article is just wishful feminist thinking. If such link was present, it would have been highlighted long ago.


I am adding another answer because the previous one has already been upvoted by others. I am retreating from my previous conclusion, and I think it would be unfair to carry forward the upvotes to my current opinion.

I looked into genetics after having this conversation between me and no comprende:

… We know that boys get their X chromosome from their mothers… we cannot say that mutations in the X chromosome is responsible for high intelligence… if mothers carry key to mental retardation in sons, it must be a hidden trait…

Response:

… females get 2 copies, so recessive harmful mutations show up far less in females… if one copy makes a good version and the other makes a bad version, you are still functional - no comprende

The old Dominant and recessive gene theory to explain why females suffer less genetic anomalies has been challenged. The reason is X inactivation. X inactivation prevents two copies of same allele being active on an offspring and it occurs at a very early stage. The choice of which one to disable is random, but it has been observed that even distribution of inactivation in XX heterozygote is better for health. Skewed inactivation has been associated with genetic diseases like breast cancer and mental retardation.

Unfortunately, we also found this. Basically, X-skewed mothers have only 25% chance of passing on their active (those responsible for retardation) alleles to their sons.

There are two conclusive studies that resolve the puzzle by showing that X chromosome is indeed key to our general intelligence, but it is still a male trait because X chromosome is enriched for male-specific but not female-specific genes. Females do not get to enjoy most of its benefits despite being the bigger carriers of it.

In conclusion I have to agree with Jennifer's theory, but she has not made it clear what "inheriting intelligence from mother" actually means. We should not try to seek validation of our social idealism in genetics because genetics records our past. It does present some hard limits, but not this time. I did not find any ill-effect of choosing an intellectually gifted female as mating partner.

From a scientist's standpoint, it will be interesting to see (sadly we will not live to see it) how our genes cope if our mating choices start changing. There are some inefficiencies in our genes that may pose some problems, but who knows?


Just heard a Facebook meme about this and it seems to be making another round of online. The population studies seems quite old following a cohort from 1994 to 2004. Rather than a genetic study, it seems to be more a correlational study

https://www.kidspot.com.au/parenting/child/child-development/childs-intelligence-comes-from-their-mums-science-says/news-story/273b4cffce35fb935e576c0afba0cf5e


Proven! Kids inherit smartness from moms and not dads, study finds

One of the most intriguing questions while raising a child is most definitely, "who has the child took on, the mum or the dad?" From their eyes to hair and their habits, it is quite likely that you can link back their traits to one of the parents. However, studies have proved that one particular trait, intelligence, which might divide opinions is inherited from the maternal side!

Confused? There is a lot of scientific backing to this tall claim. Children do inherit their intelligence from their mamas, and not their dads!

02 /6 The study

Remember when people say, an educated mom educates the entire family? Well, it might hold true, after all!

While it almost makes sense that kids inherit equal traits (including their IQ levels) from both parents, a genetic study was done which points out to the evidence that intelligence, particularly, is inherited from one parent, the mothers.

03 /6 Did you know?

The study, which has been published in the journal, Psychology Spot dates back to a sample survey done in the year 1994, where close to 12,686 people, aged between 1-22 were interviewed and questioned on several factors including race, education level, socio-economic status and similar questions were asked to mothers in the study. Upon analysis, it was seen that the intelligence gene was linked to the X chromosome, which is the prime female chromosome.

In fact, another correlated study, linked to the 1994 based study found out that women, since they have twice the number of X chromosome are more likely to pass on the intelligence genes onto their children.

04 /6 Did you know?

In fact, mom's side of genetics determine how brainy or clever a child is, and the father's genes make little to no difference in honing a child's intelligence.

Science also supports that intelligence is a "conditioned" gene, which usually works when they are transmitted from the mother. Conditioned genes and other cognitive genes are subdued and deactivated when they come from a father's side.

Experts also say that since, in most cultures, moms occupy the role of a primary caregiver, what they do and nurture influences the shaping of their children's brains during their critical development stage.

05 /6 What role do dads play then?

Moms might have a bigger role to play in making their kids smart, but it just doesn't mean that dads are not doing anything.

Intelligence is a broad concept and as a whole, it is influenced by a lot of factors. According to science, 40-60% of our acquired intelligence is definitely a hereditary thing but the rest of them are determined by certain environmental factors in play, including how emotionally well-connected you are to your parent.

06 /6 Conclusion

There's no doubt that having an active, connected parent helps the child grow emotionally. Studies have also proven that having a mom who is emotionally viable and present significantly boosts intelligence rates in children. In fact, having emotionally active parents influences children's intellect, cognitive intelligence, personality and rational thinking.

Hence, it is always good if you are able to sustain or share an emotionally strong relationship with your parents! If you have a good IQ level, or everyone considers you a know-it-all, you know who to thank now!


Debunking the Idea That a Kid's Intelligence Comes Mostly From Mom

News stories have been recently circulating around the web claiming that the most important genes for a child's intelligence come from his or her mom.

According to these reports, which seem to uniformly derive from this blog post, fathers play a relatively minor genetic role in determining a child's "intelligence quotient," or IQ, which is a score people get from taking a standardized test. Scientists use this score as a proxy for intelligence because it's measurable.

While there isn&rsquot a lot of strong evidence either way, the idea that mothers' genes are the main determinant of their children's intelligence is most likely not true. Recent studies on the genetics behind intelligence (here, here and here, for example) point to many genes -- possibly thousands spread across our DNA and bequeathed to us by both our parents -- as affecting IQ.

X Doesn't Mark the Spot

Part of the argument that mom and not dad is mostly responsible for kids&rsquo IQ is based on some older research that suggested many key genes related to intelligence are on the X chromosome. As you may recall from high school biology, biological males have one X and one Y chromosome biological females have two Xs.

What you might not remember, though, is that sons can only receive an X from their mothers they must get their Y from their fathers.

So the argument for mom-derived intelligence is that key IQ genes are on the X -- thus, boys must get their intelligence from their moms.

Of course even if this were true, daughters would still get a mix of their mother's and father's IQ genes, as males do give their female children an X.

Recent Studies

But even the claim that male children inherit their intelligence from their mothers is dubious. That's because none of the recent studies have found key genes for intelligence on the X chromosome.

In fact, despite some studies suggesting that around half our IQ comes from the genes we inherit, the latest research has not been able to locate any genes which by themselves have a significant effect on intelligence.

The best explanation for not being able to identify the specific genetic origins for intelligence is that each of the hundreds or even thousands of genes contributing to intelligence have only a small effect on overall IQ.

So your final &ldquogenetic&rdquo IQ is the sum of all of these small effects, and each is simply too minimal to recognize in the kind of genetic studies that have been done to date.

Dad Data Missing

In the viral blog post mentioned above, one of the studies cited as proof of maternal determination of intelligence compared the IQs of 12,686 people between the ages of 14 and 22 to the IQs of their mothers.

The post reports that offspring IQs varied from maternal IQs by only about 15 points on average.

The study is attributed to the Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit at the University of Glasgow. We couldn't find it, so sent the unit an email inquiry.

Geoff Der, a senior research fellow at the unit, wrote back. He said the post appeared to be referring to this study on the effect of breastfeeding on intelligence, for which he was a co-author. (As it turns out, the data used for the study came from the U.S.)

The study does say that "maternal IQ has the largest independent effect" on the IQ of children, with factors such as maternal education, age, family poverty and birth order "all making independent contributions for most outcomes."

But Der says the study didn't measure paternal intelligence as a factor, because that data wasn't available. So for all we know, there could be an even greater correlation between the IQs of children and fathers. Der said the post's assertion that kids' IQs correlated to mothers' IQs within 15 points could not have come from his study.

Environment Counts

However, even if IQs do track more with maternal intelligence, this might not be so surprising. Intelligence isn't just a matter of genetics -- environment plays a huge role, too. This is especially true in the first five years of life, when our brains are being molded by our circumstances. And traditionally, mothers have had more of an influence on children's' home environments (though this is changing, of course).

Adding to the environmental argument, this study, looking at the effect a father's age has on childrens' intelligence, said: "Factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status and number of, particularly older, siblings may play an important role in accounting for paternal age-AH4 associations." (AH4, like IQ, is an intelligence test.)

And of course if this effect turns out to be genetic and not environmental, then it shows that dad's genes can have a meaningful impact on his kids' intelligence.

Mice Experiments

The final argument for mothers determining a child's intelligence is based on an interesting set of mice experiments done between 20 and 30 years ago. One interpretation of the results from these experiments is that a woman's genes contribute more to the cerebral cortex or the thinking part of the brain, while a man's genes contribute more to the limbic system, which controls some of our more primitive functions like appetite, sex and aggression.

But while mice are often used as precursor subjects for human trials, the results don't always translate.

So where our level of intelligence comes from is hard to pin down. It could be that mothers or fathers play a bigger role. Right now, we just don't know.

What we can say is that proper nutrition and a stimulating environment can do wonders for everyone's mind, no matter what genes mom and dad pass down.


Is intelligence inherited from the mother or the father?

He got his mother's eyes, but what about his intelligence? (TRT World and Agencies)

This question originally appeared on Quora: Is it true that intelligence is inherited from the mother? Answer by Drew Smith, Ph.D. in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology from the University of Colorado

The first rule regarding new studies of the inheritance of intelligence is to be very suspicious of all studies of the inheritance of intelligence.

The history of these studies is not a happy one. Stephen Gould wrote a whole book (The Mismeasure of Man) detailing all the ways in which biological research has been co-opted in the service of racism, misogyny, homophobia and economic repression. Intelligence research, not surprisingly, has always been one of the worst offenders.

The whole field suffers from foundational weaknesses: we cannot really define intelligence, and cannot separate it from culture. Psychologists do indeed have definitions of intelligence but (surprise!) these definitions tend to emphasise skills at which psychologists excel: verbal fluency and manipulation of abstract symbols, for example. A cynic might add to this list a willingness to believe that results from experiments on affluent Western undergrads can be generalized to the rest of humanity.

That said, there is little doubt that there is a heritable component of intelligence. Whatever forms intelligence might take, it is ultimately about problem-solving, and the best problem-solvers are the ones who live to reproduce. Although the idea of genes "for" intelligence is a fallacy, there are many genes whose function affect intelligence. The survival value of different alleles of these genes is highly dependent on environment, not least the societal and cultural environment in which they operate. Few, if any, of these alleles make their bearers "more" intelligent. They are instead likely to affect the forms which intelligence takes.

It is not remotely plausible that all of the genes which affect intelligence are inherited from the mother, but that is not what the linked research claims - rather, it claims that a preponderance are. There are a few mechanisms by which this could happen:

  • A number of genes that affect intelligence could be located on the X-chromosome. Since males have only one X, and inherit it from their mothers, their intelligence might be more closely linked to their mothers than to their fathers.
  • Genetic imprinting[1] [2] [3] can cause genes inherited from one parent to be preferentially suppressed. This seems to be what the new research is claiming. Although this is plausible, I'd wait for a few more confirmatory studies before accepting it as fact.
  • Mitochondria are inherited (almost) exclusively from the mother. Though mitochondrial genes might not seem to be genes "for" intelligence, brains are voracious consumers of metabolic energy - which is supplied by mitochondria. Better mitochondria are likely to translate to better brain function.

A lot of the research cited in the article claims to show that children's intelligence is more closely correlated with that of their mother than their father. Well, duh. So long as mothers are the primary caregivers, they are also the primary architects of their child's environment during the period of critical brain development. Of course smart mothers tend to raise smart children. Raising children to be good problem solvers is itself a problem to be solved, and mothers with better brains are likely to do a better job of it.

The genetics of intelligence is one of the LaBrea Tarpits of science. It is covered with the sticky tar of subjectivity, and is still struggling to climb out of the tar and on to a firm objective footing.


The Truth About Intelligence: Is It Genetically Inherited Or Earned?

According to the dictionary, intelligence is the ability of acquiring and applying knowledge and skills. However, it's not that simple, since intelligence is a notion that is often misunderstood.

Some people believe that intelligence is the knowledge you gain through education, while others believe it has nothing to do with education, but it is the sum of experiences you gain throughout your life.

Once I was having a talk with an economics professor about the US education system. The main question I had for him was if the current system provides us with necessary knowledge. His response was that everything we learn through books and school is useless until we learn how to apply it.

Allow me to reference the great Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Those who have read books about brilliant detective Sherlock Holmes or watched the blockbuster movies are familiar with a dialogue between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson, where the former accuses Mr. Holmes about not knowing enough basic information about world, like how the Earth revolves around the sun.

Holmes rebuts by saying he only retains information that can be useful for his work and any other kind of information would be useless for him.

Of course, it does not mean that simple information about the world around us will be waste of time and brain capacity we should know how the world around us works.

Even Bill Gates doesn't just stick to tech practice and computer coding in his free time. On his website, he often writes about the books he is reading and says,

Therefore, we cannot say that everything we read and learn is useless information since sometimes it gives you a sense of how everything is organized, from human body to society.

We can conclude that intelligence is not only knowledge and skills that you can apply, but it also helps you to make sense of things that are happening around you.

So is intelligence something you can inherit through your family, or does your ethnicity somehow affect it? Maybe it is something that depends on you?

If you want to know what stands behind the successful and intelligent people, I suggest you read “Outliers” by Malcolm Gladwell. By the end of it, you'll be looking at success differently.

Do you inherent your intelligence through your family? A study by psychologist Robert Sternberg concluded that the skills and knowledge you have are the result of your family. However, it is not a genetic relation, but rather, an educational one.

Children inherit practical intelligence, which is the knowledge that comes from the way your parents communicate with you. According to the study, middle-class families spend more time with their children than lower-class families.

During that time, they teach their children how to speak and interact with other people, how to treat them and how to solve social problems.

This establishes and develops self-esteem, a quality that works in your favor for a lifetime. Varying factors like parents working more than one job, the amount of free time they can spend with their children and relative location to quality school districts affect children who come from lower-class families. By that sense, family background can have an influence on your intelligence.

In order to analyze the relation between ethnicity and intelligence, I’m going to refer back to Gladwell's “Outliers." Have you ever wondered where the stereotype of Asians being good at math and science came from?

Gladwell explains it this way: “In many cultures it is believed that whatever you do, the results always depends on the fate or on God’s will.” Thus, it implies that how much you work does not affect the outcome.

On the other hand, most Asian cultures believe that everything depends on you and your hard work. The harder you work, the more you get, and if you do not succeed, then you must not have tried hard enough. So, yes, your ethnicity does matter for you to be a successful or intelligent person.

Overall, the lesson to be learned here is that you shouldn’t let your intelligence and/or lifestyle be the slave of your genes. Everything depends on you. Certain aspects do affect this, but it is only the attitude that injects you with the drive to do or not to do.


Sorry, But Intelligence Is Inherited Through The Mother’s Genes

You’re a smart guy, with a smartphone, and maybe even a smart diaper bag. But your genes? As psychologist Jennifer Suárez pointed out recently on her website Psychology Spot, there’s mounting evidence that your genetics may not matter much when it comes to your kid’s intelligence. The good news is that they get it from their mamas, and she’s pretty cool too. The bad news is that your stupid genes are no longer just cargo shorts.

According to Robert Lehrke’s research in 1997, intelligence comes from the X chromosome, which women have 2 of to your one. In theory, that means your kid is twice as likely to get their smarts from your spouse instead of you. To make matters worse, intelligence all comes down to something known as “conditioned genes,” which aren’t genes for great hair. They’re genes that work differently depending on if they come from the mother or father, and are either activated or deactivated depending on where they go and what they do. Mom genes are activated in the cerebral cortex, where intelligence develops, and dad genes are activated in the limbic system, which controls basic feelings like anger, hunger, and Superbowl.

Technically you can pass on your intelligence genes to your kid, but the problem is that they are DOA — deactivated on arrival. Still, it’s important to note that only an estimated 40-to-60 percent of intelligence is inherited, and the rest is left up to environment, which you have a huge amount of control over as the great and powerful dad. So you may as well focus on that half of Junior’s intelligence, because the missus has her part covered. Good thing you married for brains and beauty.


No, you did not inherit your intelligence from your mother’s genes

The premise of [a post from Second Nexus is] that science has traced “intelligence genes” to the X chromosome and that: “children are more likely to inherit intelligence from their mothers because intelligence genes are located on the X chromosomes (and mothers have two).”

Whatever is on the X can pass from mother to child or father to (usually) daughter, but the two X chromosomes the mother has aren’t the same and don’t at all automatically double the odds of inheriting a specific variant.

But there’s more…The doubled “gene dosage” for people with two (or more) X chromosomes is adjusted downward in a clever way: each cell turns off most of one X or the other. So inheriting an X-linked gene variant isn’t a guarantee that it will even be used because some cells might just shut it down.

So let’s get this out of the way: Intelligence is complicated…It’s layer upon layer upon layer of interacting pieces. So no. Not just your mother. Not just the X chromosome. Not even just genes.

The GLP aggregated and excerpted this blog/article to reflect the diversity of news, opinion, and analysis. Read full, original post: No, Research Has Not Established That You Inherited Your Intelligence From Your Mother


Scientists Reveal Which Genes Come From Your Mom and Which You Get From Your Dad

If you’ve heard someone tell you something like, “You are a copy of your mother,” you should know that this is a false statement. In fact, we (especially women) are more like our fathers, and not our mothers. Besides, there is a theory that a father’s lifestyle before the conception of the baby, including the food he eats and how he feels, are the basis of the future health of the baby. This article will tell you about the traits that are inherited from the father and which are from the mother.

Bright Side wants you to remember that even if you have good genes, you should still maintain a healthy lifestyle. Because, in the end, your lifestyle is the key factor to how you will look and feel.

Most of the time, children inherit the shape of the tip of their nose, the area around their lips, the size of their cheekbones, the corners of their eyes, and the shape of their chin. These are the key areas highlighted during facial recognition, and people whose have similar-looking areas that we mentioned above, will appear almost identical to us.

And the area between the eyebrows is often very different.

Reese Witherspoon’s daughter inherited her mother’s blue eyes, the shape of cheekbones, chin, and nose tip.

Mother’s genes are usually 50% of a child’s DNA, and father’s genes are the other 50%. However, male genes are much more aggressive than female ones, that’s why they are usually more prominent. So, there are usually 40% of active female genes and 60% of active male genes.

Besides, a pregnant woman’s body identifies the fetus as a partially alien body. In order to save the baby, it has to find peace with the aggressive father’s genes (sometimes, at the cost of her own genes).

However, it is still possible to find out which traits a child can inherit from their father and which they get from their mother.


Do We Really Inherit Intelligence From Our Mothers?

Do human beings get all of their genes for intelligence from their mother? originally appeared on Quora: the knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights.

Answer by Drew Smith, former R&D director at MicroPhage and SomaLogic, on Quora:

The first rule regarding new studies of the inheritance of intelligence is to be very suspicious of all studies of the inheritance of intelligence.

The history of these studies is not a happy one. Stephen Gould wrote a whole book ( The Mismeasure of Man ) detailing all the ways in which biological research has been co-opted in the service of racism, misogyny, homophobia and economic repression. Intelligence research, not surprisingly, has always been one of the worst offenders.

The whole field suffers from foundational weaknesses: we cannot really define intelligence, and cannot separate it from culture. Psychologists do indeed have definitions of intelligence but (surprise!) these definitions tend to emphasize skills at which psychologists excel: verbal fluency and manipulation of abstract symbols, for example. A cynic might add to this list a willingness to believe that results from experiments on affluent Western undergrads can be generalized to the rest of humanity.

That said, there is little doubt that there is a heritable component of intelligence. Whatever forms intelligence might take, it is ultimately about problem-solving, and the best problem-solvers are the ones who live to reproduce. Although the idea of genes “for” intelligence is a fallacy, there are many genes whose function affect intelligence. The survival value of different alleles of these genes is highly dependent on environment, not least the societal and cultural environment in which they operate. Few, if any, of these alleles make their bearers “more” intelligent. They are instead likely to affect the forms which intelligence takes.

It is not remotely plausible that all of the genes which affect intelligence are inherited from the mother, but that is not what the linked research claims - rather, it claims that a preponderance are. There are a few mechanisms by which this could happen:

  • A number of genes that affect intelligence could be located on the X-chromosome. Since males have only one X, and inherit it from their mothers, their intelligence might be more closely linked to their mothers than to their fathers.
  • Genetic imprinting [1][2][3] can cause genes inherited from one parent to be preferentially suppressed. This seems to be what the new research is claiming. Although this is plausible, I’d wait for a few more confirmatory studies before accepting it as fact.
  • Mitochondria are inherited (almost) exclusively from the mother. Though mitochondrial genes might not seem to be genes “for” intelligence, brains are voracious consumers of metabolic energy - which is supplied by mitochondria. Better mitochondria are likely to translate to better brain function.

A lot of the research cited in the article claims to show that children’s intelligence is more closely correlated with that of their mother than their father. Well, duh. So long as mothers are the primary caregivers, they are also the primary architects of their child’s environment during the period of critical brain development. Of course smart mothers tend to raise smart children. Raising children to be good problem solvers is itself a problem to be solved, and mothers with better brains are likely to do a better job of it.

The genetics of intelligence is one of the LaBrea Tarpits of science. It is covered with the sticky tar of subjectivity, and is still struggling to climb out of the tar and on to a firm objective footing.

This question originally appeared on Quora. Ask a question, get a great answer. Learn from experts and access insider knowledge. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. More questions:


1 Gender

Gender is random, isn’t it? Not quite, according to some studies . According to awarenessact.com, “mom passes down solely X chromosomes, while dad can pass down either an X or a Y. These chromosomes determined the gender of the baby, with XX resulting in a little girl and XY a little boy. As the mother’s chromosomes are fixed, it is th e fathe r who determines the baby’s gender.”

This makes sense when it is explained in this fashion, don’t you think? Looks like moms, sorry, you may wish for a boy or for a little girl, but it is clearly dad’s gene’s decision ultimately!


Debunking the Idea That a Kid's Intelligence Comes Mostly From Mom

News stories have been recently circulating around the web claiming that the most important genes for a child's intelligence come from his or her mom.

According to these reports, which seem to uniformly derive from this blog post, fathers play a relatively minor genetic role in determining a child's "intelligence quotient," or IQ, which is a score people get from taking a standardized test. Scientists use this score as a proxy for intelligence because it's measurable.

While there isn&rsquot a lot of strong evidence either way, the idea that mothers' genes are the main determinant of their children's intelligence is most likely not true. Recent studies on the genetics behind intelligence (here, here and here, for example) point to many genes -- possibly thousands spread across our DNA and bequeathed to us by both our parents -- as affecting IQ.

X Doesn't Mark the Spot

Part of the argument that mom and not dad is mostly responsible for kids&rsquo IQ is based on some older research that suggested many key genes related to intelligence are on the X chromosome. As you may recall from high school biology, biological males have one X and one Y chromosome biological females have two Xs.

What you might not remember, though, is that sons can only receive an X from their mothers they must get their Y from their fathers.

So the argument for mom-derived intelligence is that key IQ genes are on the X -- thus, boys must get their intelligence from their moms.

Of course even if this were true, daughters would still get a mix of their mother's and father's IQ genes, as males do give their female children an X.

Recent Studies

But even the claim that male children inherit their intelligence from their mothers is dubious. That's because none of the recent studies have found key genes for intelligence on the X chromosome.

In fact, despite some studies suggesting that around half our IQ comes from the genes we inherit, the latest research has not been able to locate any genes which by themselves have a significant effect on intelligence.

The best explanation for not being able to identify the specific genetic origins for intelligence is that each of the hundreds or even thousands of genes contributing to intelligence have only a small effect on overall IQ.

So your final &ldquogenetic&rdquo IQ is the sum of all of these small effects, and each is simply too minimal to recognize in the kind of genetic studies that have been done to date.

Dad Data Missing

In the viral blog post mentioned above, one of the studies cited as proof of maternal determination of intelligence compared the IQs of 12,686 people between the ages of 14 and 22 to the IQs of their mothers.

The post reports that offspring IQs varied from maternal IQs by only about 15 points on average.

The study is attributed to the Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit at the University of Glasgow. We couldn't find it, so sent the unit an email inquiry.

Geoff Der, a senior research fellow at the unit, wrote back. He said the post appeared to be referring to this study on the effect of breastfeeding on intelligence, for which he was a co-author. (As it turns out, the data used for the study came from the U.S.)

The study does say that "maternal IQ has the largest independent effect" on the IQ of children, with factors such as maternal education, age, family poverty and birth order "all making independent contributions for most outcomes."

But Der says the study didn't measure paternal intelligence as a factor, because that data wasn't available. So for all we know, there could be an even greater correlation between the IQs of children and fathers. Der said the post's assertion that kids' IQs correlated to mothers' IQs within 15 points could not have come from his study.

Environment Counts

However, even if IQs do track more with maternal intelligence, this might not be so surprising. Intelligence isn't just a matter of genetics -- environment plays a huge role, too. This is especially true in the first five years of life, when our brains are being molded by our circumstances. And traditionally, mothers have had more of an influence on children's' home environments (though this is changing, of course).

Adding to the environmental argument, this study, looking at the effect a father's age has on childrens' intelligence, said: "Factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status and number of, particularly older, siblings may play an important role in accounting for paternal age-AH4 associations." (AH4, like IQ, is an intelligence test.)

And of course if this effect turns out to be genetic and not environmental, then it shows that dad's genes can have a meaningful impact on his kids' intelligence.

Mice Experiments

The final argument for mothers determining a child's intelligence is based on an interesting set of mice experiments done between 20 and 30 years ago. One interpretation of the results from these experiments is that a woman's genes contribute more to the cerebral cortex or the thinking part of the brain, while a man's genes contribute more to the limbic system, which controls some of our more primitive functions like appetite, sex and aggression.

But while mice are often used as precursor subjects for human trials, the results don't always translate.

So where our level of intelligence comes from is hard to pin down. It could be that mothers or fathers play a bigger role. Right now, we just don't know.

What we can say is that proper nutrition and a stimulating environment can do wonders for everyone's mind, no matter what genes mom and dad pass down.


Proven! Kids inherit smartness from moms and not dads, study finds

One of the most intriguing questions while raising a child is most definitely, "who has the child took on, the mum or the dad?" From their eyes to hair and their habits, it is quite likely that you can link back their traits to one of the parents. However, studies have proved that one particular trait, intelligence, which might divide opinions is inherited from the maternal side!

Confused? There is a lot of scientific backing to this tall claim. Children do inherit their intelligence from their mamas, and not their dads!

02 /6 The study

Remember when people say, an educated mom educates the entire family? Well, it might hold true, after all!

While it almost makes sense that kids inherit equal traits (including their IQ levels) from both parents, a genetic study was done which points out to the evidence that intelligence, particularly, is inherited from one parent, the mothers.

03 /6 Did you know?

The study, which has been published in the journal, Psychology Spot dates back to a sample survey done in the year 1994, where close to 12,686 people, aged between 1-22 were interviewed and questioned on several factors including race, education level, socio-economic status and similar questions were asked to mothers in the study. Upon analysis, it was seen that the intelligence gene was linked to the X chromosome, which is the prime female chromosome.

In fact, another correlated study, linked to the 1994 based study found out that women, since they have twice the number of X chromosome are more likely to pass on the intelligence genes onto their children.

04 /6 Did you know?

In fact, mom's side of genetics determine how brainy or clever a child is, and the father's genes make little to no difference in honing a child's intelligence.

Science also supports that intelligence is a "conditioned" gene, which usually works when they are transmitted from the mother. Conditioned genes and other cognitive genes are subdued and deactivated when they come from a father's side.

Experts also say that since, in most cultures, moms occupy the role of a primary caregiver, what they do and nurture influences the shaping of their children's brains during their critical development stage.

05 /6 What role do dads play then?

Moms might have a bigger role to play in making their kids smart, but it just doesn't mean that dads are not doing anything.

Intelligence is a broad concept and as a whole, it is influenced by a lot of factors. According to science, 40-60% of our acquired intelligence is definitely a hereditary thing but the rest of them are determined by certain environmental factors in play, including how emotionally well-connected you are to your parent.

06 /6 Conclusion

There's no doubt that having an active, connected parent helps the child grow emotionally. Studies have also proven that having a mom who is emotionally viable and present significantly boosts intelligence rates in children. In fact, having emotionally active parents influences children's intellect, cognitive intelligence, personality and rational thinking.

Hence, it is always good if you are able to sustain or share an emotionally strong relationship with your parents! If you have a good IQ level, or everyone considers you a know-it-all, you know who to thank now!


The Truth About Intelligence: Is It Genetically Inherited Or Earned?

According to the dictionary, intelligence is the ability of acquiring and applying knowledge and skills. However, it's not that simple, since intelligence is a notion that is often misunderstood.

Some people believe that intelligence is the knowledge you gain through education, while others believe it has nothing to do with education, but it is the sum of experiences you gain throughout your life.

Once I was having a talk with an economics professor about the US education system. The main question I had for him was if the current system provides us with necessary knowledge. His response was that everything we learn through books and school is useless until we learn how to apply it.

Allow me to reference the great Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Those who have read books about brilliant detective Sherlock Holmes or watched the blockbuster movies are familiar with a dialogue between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson, where the former accuses Mr. Holmes about not knowing enough basic information about world, like how the Earth revolves around the sun.

Holmes rebuts by saying he only retains information that can be useful for his work and any other kind of information would be useless for him.

Of course, it does not mean that simple information about the world around us will be waste of time and brain capacity we should know how the world around us works.

Even Bill Gates doesn't just stick to tech practice and computer coding in his free time. On his website, he often writes about the books he is reading and says,

Therefore, we cannot say that everything we read and learn is useless information since sometimes it gives you a sense of how everything is organized, from human body to society.

We can conclude that intelligence is not only knowledge and skills that you can apply, but it also helps you to make sense of things that are happening around you.

So is intelligence something you can inherit through your family, or does your ethnicity somehow affect it? Maybe it is something that depends on you?

If you want to know what stands behind the successful and intelligent people, I suggest you read “Outliers” by Malcolm Gladwell. By the end of it, you'll be looking at success differently.

Do you inherent your intelligence through your family? A study by psychologist Robert Sternberg concluded that the skills and knowledge you have are the result of your family. However, it is not a genetic relation, but rather, an educational one.

Children inherit practical intelligence, which is the knowledge that comes from the way your parents communicate with you. According to the study, middle-class families spend more time with their children than lower-class families.

During that time, they teach their children how to speak and interact with other people, how to treat them and how to solve social problems.

This establishes and develops self-esteem, a quality that works in your favor for a lifetime. Varying factors like parents working more than one job, the amount of free time they can spend with their children and relative location to quality school districts affect children who come from lower-class families. By that sense, family background can have an influence on your intelligence.

In order to analyze the relation between ethnicity and intelligence, I’m going to refer back to Gladwell's “Outliers." Have you ever wondered where the stereotype of Asians being good at math and science came from?

Gladwell explains it this way: “In many cultures it is believed that whatever you do, the results always depends on the fate or on God’s will.” Thus, it implies that how much you work does not affect the outcome.

On the other hand, most Asian cultures believe that everything depends on you and your hard work. The harder you work, the more you get, and if you do not succeed, then you must not have tried hard enough. So, yes, your ethnicity does matter for you to be a successful or intelligent person.

Overall, the lesson to be learned here is that you shouldn’t let your intelligence and/or lifestyle be the slave of your genes. Everything depends on you. Certain aspects do affect this, but it is only the attitude that injects you with the drive to do or not to do.


Do We Really Inherit Intelligence From Our Mothers?

Do human beings get all of their genes for intelligence from their mother? originally appeared on Quora: the knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights.

Answer by Drew Smith, former R&D director at MicroPhage and SomaLogic, on Quora:

The first rule regarding new studies of the inheritance of intelligence is to be very suspicious of all studies of the inheritance of intelligence.

The history of these studies is not a happy one. Stephen Gould wrote a whole book ( The Mismeasure of Man ) detailing all the ways in which biological research has been co-opted in the service of racism, misogyny, homophobia and economic repression. Intelligence research, not surprisingly, has always been one of the worst offenders.

The whole field suffers from foundational weaknesses: we cannot really define intelligence, and cannot separate it from culture. Psychologists do indeed have definitions of intelligence but (surprise!) these definitions tend to emphasize skills at which psychologists excel: verbal fluency and manipulation of abstract symbols, for example. A cynic might add to this list a willingness to believe that results from experiments on affluent Western undergrads can be generalized to the rest of humanity.

That said, there is little doubt that there is a heritable component of intelligence. Whatever forms intelligence might take, it is ultimately about problem-solving, and the best problem-solvers are the ones who live to reproduce. Although the idea of genes “for” intelligence is a fallacy, there are many genes whose function affect intelligence. The survival value of different alleles of these genes is highly dependent on environment, not least the societal and cultural environment in which they operate. Few, if any, of these alleles make their bearers “more” intelligent. They are instead likely to affect the forms which intelligence takes.

It is not remotely plausible that all of the genes which affect intelligence are inherited from the mother, but that is not what the linked research claims - rather, it claims that a preponderance are. There are a few mechanisms by which this could happen:

  • A number of genes that affect intelligence could be located on the X-chromosome. Since males have only one X, and inherit it from their mothers, their intelligence might be more closely linked to their mothers than to their fathers.
  • Genetic imprinting [1][2][3] can cause genes inherited from one parent to be preferentially suppressed. This seems to be what the new research is claiming. Although this is plausible, I’d wait for a few more confirmatory studies before accepting it as fact.
  • Mitochondria are inherited (almost) exclusively from the mother. Though mitochondrial genes might not seem to be genes “for” intelligence, brains are voracious consumers of metabolic energy - which is supplied by mitochondria. Better mitochondria are likely to translate to better brain function.

A lot of the research cited in the article claims to show that children’s intelligence is more closely correlated with that of their mother than their father. Well, duh. So long as mothers are the primary caregivers, they are also the primary architects of their child’s environment during the period of critical brain development. Of course smart mothers tend to raise smart children. Raising children to be good problem solvers is itself a problem to be solved, and mothers with better brains are likely to do a better job of it.

The genetics of intelligence is one of the LaBrea Tarpits of science. It is covered with the sticky tar of subjectivity, and is still struggling to climb out of the tar and on to a firm objective footing.

This question originally appeared on Quora. Ask a question, get a great answer. Learn from experts and access insider knowledge. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. More questions:


Scientists Reveal Which Genes Come From Your Mom and Which You Get From Your Dad

If you’ve heard someone tell you something like, “You are a copy of your mother,” you should know that this is a false statement. In fact, we (especially women) are more like our fathers, and not our mothers. Besides, there is a theory that a father’s lifestyle before the conception of the baby, including the food he eats and how he feels, are the basis of the future health of the baby. This article will tell you about the traits that are inherited from the father and which are from the mother.

Bright Side wants you to remember that even if you have good genes, you should still maintain a healthy lifestyle. Because, in the end, your lifestyle is the key factor to how you will look and feel.

Most of the time, children inherit the shape of the tip of their nose, the area around their lips, the size of their cheekbones, the corners of their eyes, and the shape of their chin. These are the key areas highlighted during facial recognition, and people whose have similar-looking areas that we mentioned above, will appear almost identical to us.

And the area between the eyebrows is often very different.

Reese Witherspoon’s daughter inherited her mother’s blue eyes, the shape of cheekbones, chin, and nose tip.

Mother’s genes are usually 50% of a child’s DNA, and father’s genes are the other 50%. However, male genes are much more aggressive than female ones, that’s why they are usually more prominent. So, there are usually 40% of active female genes and 60% of active male genes.

Besides, a pregnant woman’s body identifies the fetus as a partially alien body. In order to save the baby, it has to find peace with the aggressive father’s genes (sometimes, at the cost of her own genes).

However, it is still possible to find out which traits a child can inherit from their father and which they get from their mother.


Sorry, But Intelligence Is Inherited Through The Mother’s Genes

You’re a smart guy, with a smartphone, and maybe even a smart diaper bag. But your genes? As psychologist Jennifer Suárez pointed out recently on her website Psychology Spot, there’s mounting evidence that your genetics may not matter much when it comes to your kid’s intelligence. The good news is that they get it from their mamas, and she’s pretty cool too. The bad news is that your stupid genes are no longer just cargo shorts.

According to Robert Lehrke’s research in 1997, intelligence comes from the X chromosome, which women have 2 of to your one. In theory, that means your kid is twice as likely to get their smarts from your spouse instead of you. To make matters worse, intelligence all comes down to something known as “conditioned genes,” which aren’t genes for great hair. They’re genes that work differently depending on if they come from the mother or father, and are either activated or deactivated depending on where they go and what they do. Mom genes are activated in the cerebral cortex, where intelligence develops, and dad genes are activated in the limbic system, which controls basic feelings like anger, hunger, and Superbowl.

Technically you can pass on your intelligence genes to your kid, but the problem is that they are DOA — deactivated on arrival. Still, it’s important to note that only an estimated 40-to-60 percent of intelligence is inherited, and the rest is left up to environment, which you have a huge amount of control over as the great and powerful dad. So you may as well focus on that half of Junior’s intelligence, because the missus has her part covered. Good thing you married for brains and beauty.


1 Gender

Gender is random, isn’t it? Not quite, according to some studies . According to awarenessact.com, “mom passes down solely X chromosomes, while dad can pass down either an X or a Y. These chromosomes determined the gender of the baby, with XX resulting in a little girl and XY a little boy. As the mother’s chromosomes are fixed, it is th e fathe r who determines the baby’s gender.”

This makes sense when it is explained in this fashion, don’t you think? Looks like moms, sorry, you may wish for a boy or for a little girl, but it is clearly dad’s gene’s decision ultimately!


No, you did not inherit your intelligence from your mother’s genes

The premise of [a post from Second Nexus is] that science has traced “intelligence genes” to the X chromosome and that: “children are more likely to inherit intelligence from their mothers because intelligence genes are located on the X chromosomes (and mothers have two).”

Whatever is on the X can pass from mother to child or father to (usually) daughter, but the two X chromosomes the mother has aren’t the same and don’t at all automatically double the odds of inheriting a specific variant.

But there’s more…The doubled “gene dosage” for people with two (or more) X chromosomes is adjusted downward in a clever way: each cell turns off most of one X or the other. So inheriting an X-linked gene variant isn’t a guarantee that it will even be used because some cells might just shut it down.

So let’s get this out of the way: Intelligence is complicated…It’s layer upon layer upon layer of interacting pieces. So no. Not just your mother. Not just the X chromosome. Not even just genes.

The GLP aggregated and excerpted this blog/article to reflect the diversity of news, opinion, and analysis. Read full, original post: No, Research Has Not Established That You Inherited Your Intelligence From Your Mother


Is intelligence inherited from the mother or the father?

He got his mother's eyes, but what about his intelligence? (TRT World and Agencies)

This question originally appeared on Quora: Is it true that intelligence is inherited from the mother? Answer by Drew Smith, Ph.D. in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology from the University of Colorado

The first rule regarding new studies of the inheritance of intelligence is to be very suspicious of all studies of the inheritance of intelligence.

The history of these studies is not a happy one. Stephen Gould wrote a whole book (The Mismeasure of Man) detailing all the ways in which biological research has been co-opted in the service of racism, misogyny, homophobia and economic repression. Intelligence research, not surprisingly, has always been one of the worst offenders.

The whole field suffers from foundational weaknesses: we cannot really define intelligence, and cannot separate it from culture. Psychologists do indeed have definitions of intelligence but (surprise!) these definitions tend to emphasise skills at which psychologists excel: verbal fluency and manipulation of abstract symbols, for example. A cynic might add to this list a willingness to believe that results from experiments on affluent Western undergrads can be generalized to the rest of humanity.

That said, there is little doubt that there is a heritable component of intelligence. Whatever forms intelligence might take, it is ultimately about problem-solving, and the best problem-solvers are the ones who live to reproduce. Although the idea of genes "for" intelligence is a fallacy, there are many genes whose function affect intelligence. The survival value of different alleles of these genes is highly dependent on environment, not least the societal and cultural environment in which they operate. Few, if any, of these alleles make their bearers "more" intelligent. They are instead likely to affect the forms which intelligence takes.

It is not remotely plausible that all of the genes which affect intelligence are inherited from the mother, but that is not what the linked research claims - rather, it claims that a preponderance are. There are a few mechanisms by which this could happen:

  • A number of genes that affect intelligence could be located on the X-chromosome. Since males have only one X, and inherit it from their mothers, their intelligence might be more closely linked to their mothers than to their fathers.
  • Genetic imprinting[1] [2] [3] can cause genes inherited from one parent to be preferentially suppressed. This seems to be what the new research is claiming. Although this is plausible, I'd wait for a few more confirmatory studies before accepting it as fact.
  • Mitochondria are inherited (almost) exclusively from the mother. Though mitochondrial genes might not seem to be genes "for" intelligence, brains are voracious consumers of metabolic energy - which is supplied by mitochondria. Better mitochondria are likely to translate to better brain function.

A lot of the research cited in the article claims to show that children's intelligence is more closely correlated with that of their mother than their father. Well, duh. So long as mothers are the primary caregivers, they are also the primary architects of their child's environment during the period of critical brain development. Of course smart mothers tend to raise smart children. Raising children to be good problem solvers is itself a problem to be solved, and mothers with better brains are likely to do a better job of it.

The genetics of intelligence is one of the LaBrea Tarpits of science. It is covered with the sticky tar of subjectivity, and is still struggling to climb out of the tar and on to a firm objective footing.


Watch the video: 3. Kako procijeniti vlastitu emocionalnu inteligenciju? (August 2022).