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Is there any connection between visual processing ability and social skills?

Is there any connection between visual processing ability and social skills?



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I suspect there is a connection because visual processing ability is necessary in noticing important subtle social cues.


Reading facial expressions is very important to understand others' intentions (Heise, 1985).

Recent research indicates that (1) the human face is a highly sophisticated signaling system for communicating affect, and (2) affect plays a key role in the experience of social organization and in the day-by-day production of culture. This essay suggests that emotional displays-on the face especially-are a primary means of socialization, allowing a neophyte to attain knowledge of the sociocultural system rapidly and efficiently.

Having a visual impairment may yield difficulties in socializing (at least in child in the Autism Spectrum Disorder) (Hellendoorn, et al, 2013):

This study suggests that visual perception may be a mechanism in the development of interpersonal relationships in ASD, which is in accordance with an embodied approach to social cognition.

… and in schizophrenia cases, as per @what comment (Sergi et al, 2006):

Social cognition appears to be a key determinant of functional status in schizophrenia. Using a very basic measure of visual perception, the present study found that social perception mediates the influence of early visual processing on functional status in schizophrenia.

Other indirect consequences may happen due to behavior related to some visual disorder. Vision problems and social skills (note: not a peer-reviewed article):

Vision problems also affect social interaction. Your child might appear awkward, clumsy, or other children may complain that he is invading their personal space, because he has trouble with spatial and body awareness and depth perception. The other children might treat him differently because he has developed coping habits, such as constantly rubbing his eyes, squinting, or tilting his head, or because he often complains of headaches or nausea. He may become distracted while talking or ignore the rhythm of a conversation and other social cues. Children or other parents might unfairly judge this behavior as unmannerly or inconsiderate.

Dealing with difficulty in school, awkwardness in social settings, poor performance in physical activities, and strained relationships with parents is a lot for a child to handle. While children with other learning disabilities may excel in sports or sociability, vision problems interfere more often beyond the classroom. Falling behind academically and being treated differently by peers and adults can lead to low self-esteem and withdrawal.


Yes there is relation, but currently there is no research evidences. its theoretical. As you can observe we at according to situation and its demands. with passage of time our social skills improved and we also learn new skills in such way.


Reading Skills, Creativity, and Insight: Exploring the Connections

Studies of the relationship between creativity and specific reading disabilities have produced inconclusive results. We explored their relationship in a sample of 259 college students (age range: 17 to 38 years-old) from three Chilean universities. The students were tested on their verbal ability, creativity, and insight. A simple linear regression was performed on the complete sample, and on high- and low-achievement groups that were formed based on reading test scores. We observed a significant correlation in the total sample between outcomes on the verbal ability tasks, and on the creativity and insight tasks (range r =. 152 to r =. 356, ps <.001). Scores on the reading comprehension and phonological awareness tasks were the best predictors of performance on creativity and insight tasks (range β = .315 to β = .155, ps <.05). A comparison of the low- and high-scoring groups on verbal ability tasks yielded results to the same effect. These findings do not support the hypothesis that specific reading disability is associated with better performance on creative tasks. Instead, higher verbal ability was found to be associated with higher creativity and insight.


Metacognition

As children mature through middle and late childhood and into adolescence, they have a better understanding of how well they are performing a task and the level of difficulty of a task. As they become more realistic about their abilities, they can adapt studying strategies to meet those needs. Young children spend as much time on an unimportant aspect of a problem as they do on the main point, while older children start to learn to prioritize and gauge what is significant and what is not. As a result, they develop metacognition. Metacognition refers to the knowledge we have about our thinking and our ability to use this awareness to regulate our cognitive processes (Bruning, Schraw, Norby, & Ronning, 2004).

Bjorklund (2005) describes a developmental progression in the acquisition and use of memory strategies. Such strategies are often lacking in younger children but increase in frequency as children progress through elementary school. Examples of memory strategies include rehearsing information you wish to recall, visualizing and organizing information, creating rhymes, such as “i” before “e” except after “c,” or inventing acronyms, such as “ROYGBIV” to remember the colors of the rainbow. Schneider, Kron-Sperl, and hünnerkopf (2009) reported a steady increase in the use of memory strategies from ages six to ten in their longitudinal study (see table 3.8.1). Moreover, by age ten, many children were using two or more memory strategies to help them recall information. Schneider and colleagues found that there were considerable individual differences at each age in the use of strategies and that children who utilized more strategies had better memory performance than their same-aged peers.

Table 3.8.1. Percentage of children who did not use any memory strategies by age.

A person may experience three deficiencies in their use of memory strategies. A mediation deficiency occurs when a person does not grasp the strategy being taught, and thus, does not benefit from its use. If you do not understand why using an acronym might be helpful, or how to create an acronym, the strategy is not likely to help you. In a production deficiency, the person does not spontaneously use a memory strategy and has to be prompted to do so. In this case, the person knows the strategy and is more than capable of using it, but they fail to “produce” the strategy on their own. For example, a child might know how to make a list but may fail to do this to help them remember what to bring on a family vacation. A utilization deficiency refers to a person using an appropriate strategy, but it fails to aid their performance. Utilization deficiency is common in the early stages of learning a new memory strategy (Schneider & Pressley, 1997 miller, 2000). Until the use of the strategy becomes automatic, it may slow down the learning process, as space is taken up in memory by the strategy itself. Initially, children may get frustrated because their memory performance may seem worse when they try to use the new strategy. Once children become more adept at using the strategy, their memory performance will improve. Sodian and Schneider (1999) found that new memory strategies acquired before age 8 often show utilization deficiencies, with there being a gradual improvement in the child’s use of the strategy. In contrast, strategies acquired after this age often followed an “all-or-nothing” principle in which improvement was not gradual, but abrupt.


The Learning Styles of Every Myers-Briggs® Personality Type

One of the questions I get asked the most by teachers and parents is if there is any connection between personality type and learning style. We’re all wired to process information differently. Intuitives prefer conceptual, abstract information whereas sensors prefer concrete, factual information. Extroverted children learn better in groups whereas introverted children generally learn better independently. That said, there are so many nuances and variables between each type and how they prefer to learn and that’s what this post is about! Be warned, this post is looong. Lots of scrolling may be involved!

Not sure what your personality type is? Take our new personality questionnaire here. Or you can take the official MBTI® here.

The ISTJ Learning Style

ISTJs tend to learn best through experience, hands-on practice, and repetition. They like a highly structured learning environment and can absorb information better when they have a steady, consistent routine. They retain facts very well and usually excel in reading apprehension, math, science, and any kind of technical field. In school, they are highly focused on competence, achievement, and consistency. They want clear objectives and expectations, and they will struggle with teachers who are wishy-washy, skip over details, or who have too many vague expectations. They like instructions to be given in a sequential, step-by-step order if at all possible.

ISTJs like plenty of time to think over the tasks in hand independently before joining in a group. They are usually independent, observant learners, although they can do well in small group settings. Large groups tend to make them apprehensive, but they do enjoy the freedom to ask their teachers questions. Theoretical or conceptual subjects should be given as homework for ISTJs, that way they have the time to study the concepts more in-depth and at their own pace.

The MBTI® Manual states that ISTJs are adaptively creative learners. This means that they like to apply existing solutions and techniques to new scenarios and changed situations. They try to do things better each time and focus on perfecting their technique. Adaptive creative types like to create original ideas that are more likely to fit existing models. They are usually systematic, disciplined, and focused on refining techniques and solving problems.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISTJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning. Private school followed close behind with homeschooling in last place. Unschooling had no votes at all.

The ISFJ Learning Style

ISFJs, like ISTJs, like to learn through experience, hands-on practice, repetition, and memorization. They thrive in a highly-structured learning environment where the expectations are clear and the routine is consistent. They like sequential, step-by-step instructions and they like to know that their teachers respect and appreciate them. Regular affirmation by teachers and parents helps them to feel confident in their abilities. They retain details and facts very well and usually excel in reading apprehension, language arts, social studies, and anything with a practical application. They like to learn in a linear style and can get frustrated with teachers who bounce around a lot when they teach, or who skip over details.

ISFJs like plenty of time to observe and think over the tasks and details of their lessons before interacting with a group. Even a few minutes after lectures will allow them some time to reflect and organize their thoughts before they are expected to join into a group activity or brainstorming session. They work best independently or in small groups, but can feel more hesitant in larger groups.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ISFJs get better grades than the average student in high school, and they are rated by psychologists as one of two types least likely to have trouble in school. They are also the second most frequent type among education majors.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISFJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning, but homeschooling followed close behind, with only two fewer votes. Private school had very few votes, and unschooling had no votes at all.

The ESTJ Learning Style

ESTJs learn best by experiencing, analyzing, and memorizing. They thrive in a challenging, highly-structured environment with a consistent routine and clear expectations. They like instructions to be given in a clear, sequential order and they like visual demonstrations as much as possible. They generally will take notes and retain facts and details very well. They prefer linear teaching as opposed to roundabout, abstract teaching that is more likely to be employed by intuitive teachers. They usually excel in math, history, and any form of practical or applied study.

ESTJs tend to do well in group discussion and learning situations. They like to think out loud with their peers and discuss facts and ideas in order to understand the concepts better. They may struggle when paired with perceiving students as these types take a more adaptive, informal approach in contrast to their own focused, structured approach. As extroverts, ESTJs enjoy doing hands-on projects and working with their peers. They are usually quite happy to take a leadership position and organize group discussion and activities.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ESTJs have a high academic self esteem and are left hemisphere learners. They are the most frequent of the types among industrial and technical teachers as well as among vocational teachers. They are also among the four types with the highest overall undergraduate grades.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESTJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning. Homeschooling and private school tied for second place. Unschooling received no votes at all.

The ESFJ Learning Style

ESFJs tend to learn best through collaboration, hands-on experience, memorization, and real-life application. They are happiest in a highly-structured environment where harmony and collaboration are encouraged and fostered. They are usually very hard-working and responsible in their studies, and are quick to pick up and memorize facts. They are careful note-takers, but they are also observant “shepherds” who look around to make sure everyone in the class feels accepted and included. ESFJs tend to enjoy being facilitators in the classroom they like helping out their teachers and coming alongside students who are struggling and giving encouragement. They greatly desire order in their learning environment. They will feel frustrated and unable to focus if their teachers are wishy-washy, vague about expectations, or have an ever changing routine.

It’s very important for ESFJs to feel at home in the classroom and to feel that their teachers respect and appreciate them. They become extremely uncomfortable if they feel criticized, or if they feel that one of their classmates is being criticized. They will lose respect for teachers who are highly critical or who are more focused on competition than cooperation. The harmonious atmosphere of the classroom is just as important to an ESFJ as the clarity of the content being taught.

ESFJs enjoy group activities and often make great leaders, ensuring that each person is heard and involved. They love team projects, building rapport, and organizing a schedule. According to the MBTI® Manual, ESFJs are the most frequent type among education majors and the highest in college retention.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESFJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning. Private school came in second place, and homeschooling came in last place. Unschooling received no votes at all.

The ISTP Learning Style

ISTPs learn best through hands-on, kinesthetic interaction and straightforward, logical teaching. They are extremely independent learners and enjoy a steep, challenging learning curve. They prefer to have freedom and privacy to study at their own pace. Highly-structured learning environments feel stifling to them and teachers who give long lectures are frustrating for them. They like their lessons to-the-point, direct, clear, and filled with real-life examples. They usually excel in math and practical skills.

ISTPs aren’t particularly fond of group study as a general rule. Competitions and games can be fun for them, but otherwise they prefer to work on their own with their own parameters. They do a lot of their analysis inwardly and are less likely to “think out loud” when solving a problem. For this reason, teachers can think that they are distracted or unfocused when really they are just privately analyzing the information that’s been given.

ISTPs like to learn best in a hands-on, kinesthetic way. Manuals and textbooks are less effective than learning through trial-and-error and experimentation. Unfortunately, ISTPs are rated by psychologists as the type most likely to have trouble in school. This is likely due to the fact that SPs are one of the most underserved temperaments in education. During elementary and high school many of the classes are taught and geared towards SJ (Sensing Judging) children, and in college classes are often taught and geared towards intuitives. ISTPs who eschew structure and tradition and favor independent analysis and hands-on experimentation are rarely given the appropriate environment for their unique learning style.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISTPs chose trade school as their favored learning environment. This was followed closely by homeschooling and then unschooling. Public school and private school ranked lowest in their choices of preferred education.

The ISFP Learning Style

ISFPs learn best through exploration, experimentation, and hands-on learning. Having a harmonious learning environment with a supportive teacher is extremely important to them. They evaluate data according to their values, but they also trust facts and personal experience. They learn best by doing and by getting their hands on things and seeing the real life cause-and-effect of actions. They can usually absorb information better in a colorful, beautiful environment with a friendly, accommodating atmosphere.

ISFPs are highly independent and private learners. Highly structured environments can feel stifling and overwhelming to them, and they prefer a more open-ended, creative approach. They enjoy having one-on-one coaching by a teacher they respect, and they CAN enjoy group activities but they hate being put on the spot or forced into competitions.

Making learning fun and hands-on is extremely important for teachers of ISFPs. They like teaching to be direct and to-the-point and they learn well through visual demonstrations with bullet points, videos, diagrams and charts.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISFPs chose unschooling as their preferred learning environment. This was followed by homeschooling and then public school came in last place.

The ESTP Learning Style

ESTPs learn best through kinesthetic, hands-on experience and clear, logical instruction. They prefer to be in an open-ended environment where they can get their hands-on things and experiment with a group. They need regular breaks to be active and physically engage with the world around them. This helps them to maintain focus while sitting still for too long can make them distracted and frustrated. ESTPs are inspired by tangible reality and learning environments where they can touch, smell, manipulate, and see objects up close. They enjoy collaborative learning with regular breaks to get up and move around.

ESTPs like instruction to be clear, direct, and logical. They like to see real-life cause and effect of actions and they will be less interested in theory. They will get frustrated with rambling lectures or highly structured environments. According to the MBTI® Manual, they rank higher on deductive reasoning than dominant thinking or feeling types (ETJs, ITPs, EFJs, IFPs). The manual also states that they prefer the academic subjects of history, math, and practical skills.

To make learning interesting and stimulating for ESTPs, it’s best to give them opportunities to solve problems quickly. They also thrive in competitive atmospheres. They are motivated by contests, challenges, and rewards. They want frank and direct feedback and they want to know their teachers are competent and credible.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESTPs chose public schooling as their preferred learning environment, with unschooling coming in a very close second place. Homeschooling came in third place and private schooling came in last place.

The ESFP Learning Style

ESFPs enjoy a hands-on, interactive, harmonious learning environment. Like ESTPs, they need regular breaks to move around and stretch their legs. They will usually excel in a classroom where they are able to collaborate with other students, do plenty of group exercises and projects, and use manipulatives and hands-on techniques as much as possible. They tend to feel stifled in a highly structured learning environment and thrive better in an open-ended, flexible classroom. Unfortunately very few classrooms espouse this style of learning at the moment.

ESFPs learn well in action, or “on the job”. An interesting thing about ESFPs is because they are so affected by their external environment, it’s important for them to be in a place they enjoy to study. They tend to perform better in a place that seems welcoming, harmonious, and aesthetically pleasing. They tend to perform worse in places that seem gloomy, boring, rigid, and/or critical. Academically they are among the highest persisters in college and they rate higher on deductive reasoning than dominant thinking or feeling types (ETJs, ITPs, EFJs, IFPs). According to the MBTI® manual they prefer creative subjects like art, drama, and dance. They also tend to perform well in social studies and practical skills.

ESFPs like to give and receive positive feedback, and this is an important aspect of their learning environment. As children especially they need teachers who show them support and encouragement. They can struggle in their younger years with taking criticism personally, but they thrive when they feel welcomed. They learn best when they are given real-life examples to draw from. As one of the most realistic types, ESFPs like to know the real-world application of what they’re learning and have less patience for theoretical “what if’s”.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESFPs chose public schooling as their preferred learning environment, with unschooling coming in a very close second place. Homeschooling came in third place and private schooling came in last place.

The INTJ Learning Style

INTJs benefit most from a highly conceptual, theoretical learning style. They tend to enjoy a structured yet open-minded learning environment. Instead of being given step-by-step instructions, INTJs prefer to be given an overview or overarching framework for what they will learn. Then they like to process and complete the tasks in their own way. They make excellent independent learners and also work well in one-to-one settings. They may be hesitant to participate in group discussion because they usually need time to think and process information internally before they are ready to discuss it out loud.

Classrooms that bother INTJs tend to be ones where everything is presented in a very “black and white” format. INTJs like to integrate and explore many different perspectives and are likely to challenge rules or principles that are presented as absolutes. They will often, especially as children, challenge many of the things they learn and be extremely skeptical until they can be sure that whatever “facts” are being presented are actually true. They also struggle in class settings where everything is a group discussion and they aren’t given enough time to privately process the information in their own minds. They like to have a quiet space they can analyze information and create a mental model before interacting with others and presenting what they know.

INTJs aren’t as adept at absorbing facts and details as sensing types are, they tend to learn better through putting together connections and relationships to remember things. Rote memorization and repetition bore them so they usually will try to remember what’s important by developing analogies or acronyms to memorize enough information to pass an exam.

INTJs like teachers who seem competent, open-minded, and logical. They can usually handle constructive criticism very well and they tend to do well in school. According to the MBTI® Manual, INTJs are among the top two types for undergraduate grades. They are also one of two types with the highest first-semester college grades. They have the highest grades among persisters in college and of all the types, INTJs consistently have the highest IQ scores (MBTI® Manual, page 269).

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INTJs chose private schooling as their preferred learning environment, with homeschooling coming in second place, public school in third, and unschooling in last place.

The INFJ Learning Style

Like INTJs, INFJs also prefer a highly conceptual, theoretical learning style. They enjoy having a structure, but don’t enjoy being told exactly how to do something or following the same routine day after day. They prefer being given an overall goal or an overarching framework and then filling in that framework with concepts and supporting facts and meanings. They are systems thinkers and future-oriented planners and are stimulated by complex projects and challenges. They tend to excel when writing essays, where they have the freedom to privately process the information and add thoughts and perspectives in their own way. Their favorite academic subjects are usually art, English, and music.

INFJs try to put together analogies or acronyms to memorize information but will quickly get frustrated in an environment that focuses heavily on rote memorization and repetition. They also tend to bristle at “black and white” rules or teaching. As dominant Ni users they see everything from many different perspectives and shades of gray and tend to be skeptical of hard and fast rules and “absolutes”. While they may not outwardly express their disregard, inwardly they can find themselves turning over objections and exploring many different arguments and then presenting a model or project that contradicts what their teacher was saying.

INFJs excel as independent learners or with one-to-one coaching. They like to have plenty of private time to process information and create a mental image or model of what they are trying to understand or produce. Classrooms where group discussion is prevalent and there isn’t adequate time to think quietly before discussing can be stressful for them.

INFJs enjoy an encouraging, harmonious learning environment. They like criticism to be presented tactfully and they can also take it personally when teachers are critical with other students. They are most stimulated when they know how a concept can help people or humanity in some way and when they understand how academics fit into the bigger picture.

According to the MBTI® Manual, INFJs are one of two types (along with INTJs) with the highest first-semester college grades. They are also among the top four types for undergraduate grades, and among the highest college persisters.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INFJs chose homeschooling as their preferred environment for learning. Private school came in second place, public school came in third, and unschooling came in last place.

Want a comprehensive guide to the INFJ personality type? Check out my eBook, The INFJ – Understanding the Mystic.

The ENTJ Learning Style

ENTJs learn best in a structured, organized, and competitive learning environment. They have a strategic focus when they learn and are always keeping their eye on long-term goals and system improvements. Like other Ni users, ENTJs like structure but they don’t like a rigid routine where they are told exactly what to do. They enjoy being given an overarching framework and a goal and then being able to fill in that framework or complete the goal in their own independent way. ENTJs are very skeptical of authority and have no problem calling out their teachers if they find flaws in their logic or if they can’t back up their arguments with credible sources and facts. They can get caught arguing semantics with their professors and teachers and they tend to feel energized by debate. In fact, they often excel in debate teams or in any setting that allows them to compete.

ENTJs are stimulated by complex and abstract ideas and they are driven to explore the logical frameworks behind these ideas. They are extremely decisive, logical, and focused on accomplishing goals. They have a strong focus on efficiency and can get frustrated with teachers who seem long-winded or rambling in their speech. They enjoy group activities as long as the group is able to stay on task, and they may find themselves naturally taking the lead in these settings as they generally are drawn towards leadership anyway.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ENTJs are among the top four types for college grades, among the highest in college retention, and they have the highest grades among persisters in college. Their favored academic subjects are English and science.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENTJs chose private school as their preferred environment for learning. Unschooling came in second place, public school in third, and homeschooling in last place. At first I was surprised to see unschooling ranked so highly by ENTJs as most extroverts and/or judging types preferred a more structured approach, but this is a testament to the independence of ENTJs and their ability to be self-directed learners.

The ENFJ Learning Style

ENFJs are conceptual, theoretical learners who are always asking themselves “how will this information help or impact people?”. They enjoy a collaborative, harmonious learning environment and are very good facilitators and mentors to students who might be struggling in class or feeling left out. They enjoy having a structure but they don’t necessarily want a repetitive routine. Unlike ESFJs, ENFJs prefer to be given an overarching framework or “end goal” and then find their own unique ways to complete a project or fill in information. They tend to learn new concepts well and they like to find opportunities for personal as well as group growth in the lessons. ENFJs, like other intuitives, want the big picture first. They will get bored if they start with all the details and facts and lead up to the big picture.

ENFJs are very focused on ensuring that there is harmony in the classroom. They are always keeping tabs on how the people around them are feeling and are usually quick to give support to students who are struggling. They tend to study very methodically and are usually on time with their homework. According to the MBTI® Manual, ENFJs prefer the academic subjects of art, English, and music. They tend to be very creative, in fact female ENFJs are among the three highest in one out of two measures of creativity. ENFJs are also rated by psychologists as one of the two types least likely to have trouble in school (along with ISFJs).

ENFJs are very collaborative learners. They enjoy thinking through ideas and concepts out loud with their peers, however they can feel uncomfortable during debates or highly competitive programs. Their natural desire for harmony can impede their desire to win. During group discussion ENFJs are very receptive to the different viewpoints of their peers, but they are also very aware of timing and schedule conflicts and they may take a “supervisory” approach so that everyone stays on task and all the main points are discussed before time runs out.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENFJs chose public school as their preferred learning environment. Private school came in second place, homeschooling came in third, and unschooling came in last.

The INTP Learning Style

INTPs have a very critical, analytical, and conceptual learning style. They prefer independent study more than many other types and are usually skilled self-directed learners. When they participate in a class or course they ask themselves what they are learning and why. They are mainly interested in learning subjects that will help them problem solve, develop an expertise, or theorize. They are apt to ask challenging, thought-provoking questions of their teachers, and because of their ability to spot flaws in logic so quickly they may seem nitpicky to some. If teachers tell them to stop asking questions or just to accept rules based on tradition INTPS will get frustrated.

INTPs are more concerned with meeting their own standards than they are with meeting an external set of standards. They have high intellectual goals for themselves and if the lessons they are being taught don’t align with what they think is worthwhile they will often spend their time thinking about other more stimulating ideas. Grades and scores mean far less to INTPs (and ISTPs) than they do to students of other types.

INTPs typically don’t see a lot of point in group or team activities. They like to quietly analyze a problem without being distracted by other people. They work well alone and are naturally curious about the world around them so they tend to learn by default. They like abstract learning and exploring theories and original ideas. They enjoy branching out in their learning to discover connecting ideas and concepts. They tend to feel stifled in highly structured learning environments and will get bored when having to do a lot of memorization or methodical study.

According to the MBTI® Manual, INTPs prefer the academic subjects of art and science. They also measure three highest on two of three measures of creativity. They are also one of two types (the other being INTJ) who consistently get the highest IQ scores.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INTPs chose unschooling as their preferred learning environment. Homeschooling came in second place, private school came in third, and public school came in last.

The INFP Learning Style

INFPs have a very imaginative, conceptual, and creative learning style. They are often drawn to independent learning or one-on-one coaching environments. They need a lot of time to think and process information privately before speaking or “thinking out loud”. They dislike being put on the spot and they also tend to feel stifled in highly structured environments. They are often gifted students, and according to the MBTI® Manual, they are one of three personality types who consistently get the highest IQ scores (along with INTJs and INTPs).

INFPs can enjoy collaborative learning as long as they’ve had time to get to know the other students and aren’t pushed into the process too early. They will feel frustrated if they are put on the spot or not given enough time to analyze the information internally before being pushed to “perform” or answer questions. When it comes to the subject matter being taught, INFPs are always looking for the value and personal implications of the material. They want to have a personal connection to the lesson and they want to know how the information will benefit them or other people. They have an exploratory learning style and are usually extremely creative when allowed to work at their own pace. They tend to excel in foreign language learning, art, English, and music.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INFPs chose homeschooling as their preferred learning environment. Private school came in second place, public school came in third place, and unschooling came in last place.

The ENTP Learning Style

ENTPs have a highly innovative, conceptual, and abstract learning style. They look for connections and relationships between concepts and they prefer an open-ended, exploratory environment where they can be free to ask questions. They tend to dislike highly structured learning environments and learning that revolves around lectures, especially if those lectures include a tremendous amount of detail and facts. They learn better if they are given an overarching theme or model that they can fill in with related facts and details on their own. They are attracted to activities that encourage them to integrate, strategize, make inferences, and extrapolate. They can seem debative in the classroom because they will often bring up arguments to the main point, especially if their teacher has a very “black and white” mode of teaching.

Settings with flexible rules, structures, and timelines tend to enhance the learning experience for ENTPs. They enjoy collaborating with other students and swapping ideas, thinking out loud, and coming up with creative projects and solutions. They are very enthusiastic, innovative, and questioning and can help to open the minds of their fellow students (and teachers) to possibilities and potential that could’ve easily gotten missed without them. They excel with teachers who expose them to a broad range of ideas and perspectives.

ENTPs are highly logical individuals and can handle constructive criticism very well. They like to look at problems objectively and are usually skilled at quick problem solving. They tend to struggle with remembering details and facts and can succeed at this better if they organize facts into themes or patterns.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ENTPs are among the three highest on two out of three measures of creativity. They also prefer the academic subjects of art and science.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENTPs chose public school as their preferred learning environment. Unschooling came in second place, followed by homeschooling and then private school.

The ENFP Learning Style

ENFPs have a highly conceptual, imaginative, and abstract learning style. They work well in a collaborative, open-ended environment where they are free to ask questions, bring up related ideas, and brainstorm with their teacher and fellow students. They tend to dislike highly structured learning environments and learning that involves a lot of fact memorization and retention. They perform better when they are given overarching themes and models that they can fill in on their own with related facts and details. ENFPs are especially motivated when they can apply theories and concepts to matters of personal growth and service to others.

ENFPs will be most comfortable with a teacher who takes the time to get to know them and gives plenty of personal feedback. They like to hear many diverse perspectives and viewpoints and they enjoy extrapolating on the subject matter with numerous related ideas and possibilities. They can seem argumentative but this is rarely their goal, they are usually just trying to bring up perspectives that perhaps the curriculum or teacher haven’t considered. Teachers who have a very “black and white” method of teaching or who do things very much by the book can be frustrating for ENFPs, especially young ENFPs.

ENFPs tend to dislike a lot of critical feedback. It’s important that teachers assure them of their abilities before they give criticism. A classroom where they are receiving more criticism than encouragement will be very frustrating for them.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ENFPs are highly represented among third- to sixth-grade academically talented students. They rank higher on deductive reasoning than feeling types, with other dominant intuitive types, and they prefer the academic subjects of art, English, and music.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENFPs chose public school as their preferred learning environment. Homeschooling came in second place, followed by unschooling, and then private school.

What Are Your Thoughts?

Do you relate to the learning style for your type? Let us know in the comments!

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Introduction to Type and Learning by Donna Dunning
The MBTI® Manual – A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Instrument – Third Edition by Isabel Briggs Myers, Mary H. McCaulley, Naomi L. Quenk, and Allen L. Hammer
Building Blocks of Personality Type by Leona Haas and Mark Hunziker


Supersensitive connection causes hatred of noises

A supersensitised brain connection has been identified in people who suffer from misophonia, an extreme reaction to "trigger" sounds.

For the first time, researchers led by Newcastle University, have discovered increased connectivity in the brain between the auditory cortex and the motor control areas related to the face, mouth and throat.

Publishing today, in the Journal of Neuroscience, lead author Dr Sukhbinder Kumar, Newcastle University Research Fellow in the Biosciences Institute said: "Our findings indicate that for people with misophonia there is abnormal communication between the auditory and motor brain regions -- you could describe it as a 'supersensitised connection'.

"This is the first time such a connection in the brain has been identified for the condition."

Misophonia, which means literally 'hatred of sound', is a condition in which sufferers experience intense and involuntary reactions to certain sounds made by other people, referred to as 'trigger' sounds. Trigger sounds are often the sound of someone chewing, breathing or speaking and for sufferers, usually related to mouth, throat or facial activity.

Their reaction is often extreme, and tends to consist of a combination of anger, disgust, fight-or-flight response, sometimes an urge to hurt the person making the sound or to leave the situation.

The condition is common affecting anywhere between 6% to 20% of people. Those with the more severe forms can find themselves unable to tolerate family, work, public or social situations.

Previously, misophonia had been considered a disorder of sound processing. This new research suggests that alongside this there is an abnormal type of communication between the brains hearing centre, the auditory cortex, and the areas of the ventral pre-motor cortex that are responsible for movement of the face, mouth and throat.

In response to trigger or neutral sound, scans on people with misophonia showed that the brain's auditory cortex (hearing centre) responded similarly to people without the condition, however, people with misophonia showed increased communication between the auditory cortex and the motor control areas related to the face, mouth and throat. These motor control regions were strongly activated by trigger sounds in people with misophonia in response only to their trigger sounds, but not to other sound types or in people without the condition.

Dr Kumar adds: "What surprised us was that we also found a similar pattern of communication between the visual and motor regions, which reflects that misophonia can also occur when triggered by something visual.

"This lead us to believe that this communication activates something called the 'mirror system', which helps us process movements made by other individuals by activating our own brain in a similar way -- as if we were making that movement ourselves.

"We think that in people with misophonia involuntary overactivation of the mirror system leads to some kind of sense that sounds made by other people are intruding into their bodies, outside of their control.

"Interestingly, some people with misophonia can lessen their symptoms by mimicking the action generating the trigger sound, which might indicate restoring a sense of control. Using this knowledge may help us develop new therapies for people with the condition."

Tim Griffiths, Professor of Cognitive Neurology at Newcastle University, who is a senior author on the study and also a neurologist, added: "The study provides new ways to think about the treatment options for misophonia. Instead of focussing on sound centres in the brain, which many existing therapies do, effective therapies should consider motor areas of the brain as well."

The team will be further investigating whether this understanding can help develop more effective treatments for misophonia in future.


Neurocognitive Development: Normative Development

Georges Dellatolas , Hugo Câmara-Costa , in Handbook of Clinical Neurology , 2020

Pediatric ataxias ( Table 22.1 )

In Friedreich ataxia, average onset age 10 years according to Corben et al. (2006) , there is evidence of disrupted cerebellocerebral connectivity ( Zalesky et al., 2014 Harding et al., 2016 ) and processing speed deficit ( Corben et al., 2006 Sayah et al., 2018 ). Reports of changes to other cognitive functions are less consistent ( Corben et al., 2006 ). One study reported preserved verbal working memory ( Harding et al., 2016 ) and another preserved visual reasoning, memory, and learning but scores lower than norms at sustained attention and verbal fluency ( Sayah et al., 2018 ). In 20 subjects with ataxia-telangiectasia aged 4–23 years, Hoche et al. (2019) reported an increase of cognitive deficits with age: only mild visual–spatial disorganization in preschoolers but behavioral disorders and spatial and executive deficits in adolescents and young adults. In 34 subjects with nonprogressive congenital ataxia, Steinlin et al. (1998) reported delayed motor and speech development in 100% of the cases and cognitive impairment in a majority (65%).


Auditory processing disorder

What is it?

An auditory processing disorder interferes with an individual's ability to analyze or make sense of information taken in through the ears. This is different from problems involving hearing per se, such as deafness or being hard of hearing. Difficulties with auditory processing do not affect what is heard by the ear, but do affect how this information is interpreted, or processed by the brain.

An auditory processing deficit can interfere directly with speech and language, but can affect all areas of learning, especially reading and spelling. When instruction in school relies primarily on spoken language, the individual with an auditory processing disorder may have serious difficulty understanding the lesson or the directions.

Common areas of difficulty and some educational implications:

Phonological awareness is the understanding that language is made up of individual sounds (phonemes) which are put together to form the words we write and speak. This is a fundamental precursor to reading. Children who have difficulty with phonological awareness will often be unable to recognize or isolate the individual sounds in a word, recognize similarities between words (as in rhyming words), or be able to identify the number of sounds in a word. These deficits can affect all areas of language including reading, writing, and understanding of spoken language.

Though phonological awareness develops naturally in most children, the necessary knowledge and skills can be taught through direct instruction for those who have difficulty in this area.

Auditory discrimination is the ability to recognize differences in phonemes (sounds). This includes the ability to identify words and sounds that are similar and those which are different.

Auditory memory is the ability to store and recall information which was given verbally. An individual with difficulties in this area may not be able to follow instructions given verbally or may have trouble recalling information from a story read aloud.

Auditory sequencing is the ability to remember or reconstruct the order of items in a list or the order of sounds in a word or syllable. One example is saying or writing "ephelant" for "elephant."

Auditory blending is the process of putting together phonemes to form words. For example, the individual phonemes "c", "a", and "t" are blended to from the word, "cat".

Interventions:

First, a few words about interventions in general. Interventions need to be aimed at the specific needs of the child. No two children share the same set of strengths or areas of weaknesses. An effective intervention is one that utilizes a child's strengths in order to build on the specific areas in need of development. As such, interventions need to be viewed as a dynamic and ever changing process. Although this may sound overwhelming initially, it is important to remember that the process of finding successful interventions becomes easier with time and as the child's learning approach, style, and abilities become more clear. The following examples provide some ideas regarding a specific disability. It is only a beginning, which is meant to encourage further thinking and development of specific interventions and intervention strategies.

The following represent a number of common interventions and accommodations used with children in their regular classroom:

Do not rely solely on an area of weakness.

If instructions are given orally, try to supplement this with written or other visual cues. While it is important to address the area of need directly and try to build up areas of weakness, it is also necessary that the student be able to function successfully in the classroom. A simple accommodation like backing up verbal directions with visual or written cues is one way to facilitate this.

Keep the area of difficulty in mind.

Simplifying verbal directions, slowing the rate of speech, and minimalizing distractions can make a big difference to a person with auditory processing difficulties.

Plan specific activities for the areas of difficulty.

There are many activities that can help build auditory processing skills, whether it be in the area of phonological awareness, auditory discrimination, or any of the other areas in this realm. Rhyming games, for example, can help build phonological awareness as well as discriminating between similar and different sounds. Sorting games can help build auditory memory, as the number of variables and steps involved in the sorting can be easily controlled to adjust the level of difficulty.

What to do if you suspect a problem?

The following suggestions are presented in a sequence which should help ensure that your concerns do not go ignored. Of equal importance, this sequence should help avoid setting off any premature alarms, which may not be in the child's best interests.

Write down the reasons you suspect a problem might be present or developing, carefully documenting examples in which the concerning behavior is taking place.

This will help in two ways. First, it will help confirm or alleviate your concerns. If there is cause for concern, it will help you get a more focused idea of where the difficulty lies. This list will also be helpful if further action or meetings with other professionals are necessary.

Speak to the child's teacher and other professionals who interact with your child to see if they see similar behaviors or have similar concerns. If the child is already working with specialists or receiving special education services, a consultation with these people can be helpful in identifying the problem and working out solutions.

If concerns remain, an evaluation by a specialist familiar with these issues could help isolate the problem.

Evaluations can be done through the public schools or through private practitioners. Please refer to NCLD's legal rights packet for a full explanation of your rights, the process, and the school's responsibilities to you. In addition, the evaluation should help identify strengths and weaknesses in general and the therapist should be able to recommend accommodations and strategies to best facilitate your child's learning.

If it is felt that special services or accommodations are warranted, arrange a meeting with the school professionals involved in your child's education to make plans for meeting the specific needs of your child.

In some cases, children meet the requirements to be legally entitled to special services. In other cases, children do not meet the criteria for legal entitlement. In either case, it is the school which will have to arrange and implement these decisions. Legally bound or not, some people and school systems are more responsive to people's needs than others. For this reason, it is important to try to establish and maintain a useful rapport with the people to whom you entrust your child's education. Often there are local resources available to help meet and support the variety of needs which accompany any person and his/her family when a disability is discovered. These organizations often prove tremendously valuable in providing additional resources and strategies which can make the difference between your child receiving the help s/he needs or not.

This information is representative of the materials available from the National Center for Learning Disabilities Information and Referral System

Related resource from our partner:


METHODS

We focused on creative arts or expressive activities that were conducted primarily in North American and European countries and primarily with adults. We excluded studies focusing on complementary medicine practices. Although the literature in this review targeted adults (aged 18 years or older), many studies have focused on use of the arts with children in various contexts (e.g., sandplay, 11 dance-movement therapy, 12 dramatherapy, 13,14 music, 15 myth to facilitate storytelling and drawing activities, 16 wheelchair dance experiences, 17 mandalas, 18 art therapy during painful cancer procedures, 19 drama therapy, 20 and drawing. 21 ), and other reviews have focused on art therapy and children. 22,23 Also, we excluded articles about art education or art in professional career development. Finally, we did not evaluate the relationship of creative expression with major mental disorders such as schizophrenia or dementia, severe developmental disorders, end-of-life issues, the use of art with incarcerated populations, or the impact of religion on health outcomes.

We assessed how creative expression as a healing process has been used in both clinical and informal practice to promote wellness and healing. We searched the following databases and Internet sites, covering the recent period of 1995 through 2007: Medline (PubMed) for general health care literature Proquest, specifically PsycINFO for psychology journals and CINAHL for nursing and allied health literature the Cochrane Library for health care reviews and the Web of Science database including the Science Citation Index, the Social Sciences Index, and the Arts and Humanities Index. Primary keywords included the arts and medical outcomes, the creative arts and healing or wellness, creative expression and healing or wellness, the arts and health care, creative expression and illness, music therapy, art therapy, and creative expression and humanities.

In the Cochrane Library evidence-based literature, the only studies that included references to art or creative expression were those associated with the treatment of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses 24,25 therefore, we did not include any Cochrane database studies in our review. In addition to the sources just mentioned, specific journals were also targeted because of their connection to art and health: Health Education Research, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Health Education and Behavior, The Arts in Psychotherapy, and the Journal of Music Therapy.

We also searched literature from 1970 to 1995 on PubMed (MeSH art therapy database) to determine whether there were further foundational research articles, but we did not find any abstracts matching our criteria. However, we found 1 randomized controlled trial in PubMed, and we included that study. 26 Because music therapy was observed to be a predominant source of research in the arts and healing, the Journal of Music Therapy was also reviewed for foundational articles. As mentioned, 4 major areas of arts and health care emerged from our review: music engagement, visual arts therapy, movement-based creative expression, and expressive writing. Therefore, we focused on the potential of these creative areas to promote healing.


Research in Visual Perception: The Significance of Face Recognition

In his 1865 book, Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin first proposed an evolutionary explanation for the human fascination with faces. He argued that critical social cues are expressed through facial gestures during situations of extreme fear and excitement, strongly suggesting that the face is an important feature of our ancestral social communication. Today our ability to quickly recognize familiar faces and subtle facial gestures continues to be a source of great interest to anthropologists, psychologists, neuroscientists and doctors. Discovering whether face recognition is a specialized human ability may lead to new insights into how our brain functions.

The act of recognizing a face is actually quite complex. Like many visual stimuli, faces must be accurately recognized in any orientation or lighting condition, and even while moving. But unlike other objects, faces are intimately involved in communication, and our brains must be able to extract a tremendous amount of subtle detail from just a glance. So while some of the issues involved in face recognition are the same as for recognizing any object, other issues are unique to faces. Confronted with this dilemma, is the brain’s most efficient solution to have special mechanisms for face recognition, or to simply extend the abilities of existing object recognition mechanisms?

That question is at the heart of a deep controversy in face recognition research. Studies with monkeys suggest that unique face recognition mechanisms might exist, while brain imaging experiments, studies with babies, and studies of people who cannot recognize faces show evidence supporting both sides of the argument. Compelling questions persist within the scientific community: what exactly are the mechanisms for processing faces in the brain? What compromises must be made for the brain to recognize faces quickly and accurately? And what does that indicate about how the human brain functions in general?

Behavior as a Beginning
Faces enter the human visual experience from the very beginning of life. Studies show that as soon as nine minutes after birth, babies prefer to look at pictures that most resemble human faces. Moreover, young infants have great propensity for mimicking the facial gestures of people around them. Although infants practice many motor skills, these studies show that even at a very early age, humans devote a great deal of attention and energy to the movements required for facial expression. By adulthood, our infantile preferences translate into an ability to recognize human faces better than other visual stimuli. Psychologist Robert Yin conducted some of the first studies that compared recognition of faces with recognition of objects in healthy adults. He found that people recognized faces significantly more often than they recognized objects.

Dr. Yin also uncovered a phenomenon now known as the inversion effect. He demonstrated that his subjects were able to recognize most objects about as often upside-down as they did right-side-up however, subjects had a much more difficult time recognizing upside-down faces than they did with right-side-up faces. Yin hypothesized that images can be processed either holistically (all at once), or feature-by-feature. Furthermore, he suggested that inversion of an image prevents holistic processing, but does not interfere with feature processing. Since Dr. Yin’s subjects showed a compromised ability to recognize inverted faces but not other inverted objects, he argued that faces must be processed in a holistic way, while other objects are processed feature-by-feature.

Yin’s theory of holistic processing became quite controversial, and critics were quick to point out that his studies did not provide any direct evidence of two distinct systems for processing faces and objects. Moreover, skeptics argued that if the brain did process faces in a distinct way, the exact method in which this occurred remained unclear.

Primate Studies
Studies with primates have also suggested that processing faces involves distinct neural mechanisms. For example, measuring the activity of individual neurons in the cortex of monkeys shows that certain patches of neurons in the superior temporal sulcus are activated most strongly when the monkeys observed pictures of faces. On the other hand, non-face stimuli provoked a significant decrease in neuronal activity.

There is also evidence of specialization within these “face cell regions”. Some neurons within the superior temporal sulcus were particularly sensitive to the orientation of the face presented. Certain cells responded strongest to front-views of faces, while others showed more activity when presented with face profiles. Other subsets of cells showed great sensitivity to the direction of the eye’s gaze.

These studies strongly suggest that at least some primate brains have specific neural machinery for processing faces.

Using Technology to Uncover the Neural Mechanisms of Human Face Perception
Technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiological equipment can be used to safely investigate face processing in the human brain. Studies in humans using such technologies also report neural activity uniquely related to viewing faces. These studies suggest that the right hemisphere of the brain may be more specialized to process faces than other objects in the visual field.

In 1997, Nancy Kanwisher and colleagues at Massachusetts Institute of Technology used fMRI to record the brain activity of subjects who were shown a series of faces and common objects. Their research showed that the fusiform gyrus became significantly more active when the subjects were presented with faces than when they were looking at other objects. In 1999, Kanwisher conducted a different fMRI study that looked at brain activity while subjects viewed pictures of human faces and pictures of animals. Kanwisher reported that again the fusiform gyrus became significantly more active when subjects looked at human faces than when they looked at animals. Results from these studies suggest that the fusiform gyrus is a region of the brain specialized for processing faces.

In a 1999 study conducted by Isabel Gauthier and colleagues, a different interpretation of Kanwisher’s results came to light. Gauthier argued that the role of the fusiform gyrus may be to distinguish a specific type of object from any general class of objects, not just faces. Her team used fMRI to record the brain activity of people who were shown a picture of a bird and were asked identify the type of bird. Gauthier’s data showed that the fusiform area is active during this task, a result that differed from previous studies in which the fusiform gyrus was not active when subjects viewed animals. Gauthier’s interpretation of this data is that the fusiform gyrus can distinguish a particular face within the general category of faces, in much the same way that this gyrus can distinguish a particular type of bird within the general category of birds. This interpretation implies that the brain does not have a special mechanisms for recognizing faces, and given the conflicting evidence provided in these two brain imaging studies, it is still unclear whether or not the brain handles face recognition in a unique way.

What Does Prosopagnosia Tell Us?
Clinical studies provide additional information about how the brain processes faces. Since the first documented report in 1962, clinical studies of prosopagnosic patients have contributed significantly to the study of face perception. Prosopagnosics can recognize a face as a face, however, they are not able to link the face with anything they once knew about the person such as their name, age, occupation or relationship.

Often, prosopagnosia is accompanied by impaired ability to recognize other objects such as animals and abstract signs. This fact leads some scientists to argue that prosopagnosia is evidence against a unique brain mechanism for face recognition. But scientists who do believe that the brain processes faces in a special way point out that there have been a few cases of prosopagnosia in which the symptoms were strictly limited to faces. In 1986, Dr. De Renzi reported that one of his patients, a 72-year old lawyer, could discriminate between different kinds of coins, cats and a host of other objects, but displayed a severe inability to recognize familiar faces. This case study proves that the ability to recognize faces can be functionally separated from the ability to recognize any other object, an observation which strongly suggests that face recognition is at least anatomically distinct from other types of object processing.

The Devil is in the Details
So what is it that causes humans to attach special significance to a human face? Our fascination begins at birth, and as adults we remember faces better than any other object. Facial gestures project emotion and are important to how we communicate with each other. But how does the brain recognize and interpret this expressive structure? Time, clever experimentation, and technology will provide new facts, and new facts will continue to provide clues to the mechanisms behind this intriguing neural process.

Interactive Experiment
Test your face perception skills with two interactive experiments one shows the inversion effect, and the other demonstrates how edges, features and surface area affect the process of human face recognition.


What Are the Different Types of Processing Disorders?

Processing disorders are any disorders that directly affect the brain’s ability to process information that comes from any of the senses properly. A processing disorder is grouped into one of four categories based on which area of processing has problems: sensory, visual, auditory, and language. Each of these areas can lead to different processing deficiencies.

Sensory processing disorders are one of the four possible types of processing disorders a person can have. A sensory disorder occurs when the central nervous system cannot properly process information that comes from the senses of the body. Although sensory processing encompasses all of the senses, vision and auditory processing are generally not included unless they are part of a complete processing disorder that involves multiple areas. When a disorder like this is determined to occur with sensory processing, the disorder most commonly affects sensations of the skin, sensitivity to temperature changes, and other such extreme sensitivities. The brain is not able to filter through all of the information effectively.

Visual disorders are strictly limited to visual processing. Someone who suffers from a disorder in this group has difficulty processing things that are seen. The sufferer may not be able to identify letters or determine differences in shapes. He or she can also have difficulties with background and foreground object selection. Visual memory, which is remembering recent things seen, can also suffer with this disorder.

Another group of disorders affects auditory processing. People who have a disorder in auditory processing do not properly process information gathered from sound. Background noises blend in with foreground sounds. Short-term sound information, such as lists or directions that have been spoken, cannot be easily recalled. Some people have difficulty distinguishing similar sounds, particularly words.

Language disorders commonly occur in conjunction with auditory disorders. In fact, the symptoms of this type of processing disorder are similar to or caused by those experienced with problematic auditory processing. Communicating through speech is difficult, especially if auditory information is not processed properly. A person may pause in the middle of words or use wrong words. Stuttering and sound repetition are common as well.

Treatment for processing disorders depends on the area affected. Although some types of processing problems cannot be completely cured, there are treatments to help reduce problems. For example, audiologists can help with hearing difficulties and speech therapists can work with language problems. Various specialists are able to increase function and help improve the sufferer’s quality of life.


What Are the Different Types of Processing Disorders?

Processing disorders are any disorders that directly affect the brain’s ability to process information that comes from any of the senses properly. A processing disorder is grouped into one of four categories based on which area of processing has problems: sensory, visual, auditory, and language. Each of these areas can lead to different processing deficiencies.

Sensory processing disorders are one of the four possible types of processing disorders a person can have. A sensory disorder occurs when the central nervous system cannot properly process information that comes from the senses of the body. Although sensory processing encompasses all of the senses, vision and auditory processing are generally not included unless they are part of a complete processing disorder that involves multiple areas. When a disorder like this is determined to occur with sensory processing, the disorder most commonly affects sensations of the skin, sensitivity to temperature changes, and other such extreme sensitivities. The brain is not able to filter through all of the information effectively.

Visual disorders are strictly limited to visual processing. Someone who suffers from a disorder in this group has difficulty processing things that are seen. The sufferer may not be able to identify letters or determine differences in shapes. He or she can also have difficulties with background and foreground object selection. Visual memory, which is remembering recent things seen, can also suffer with this disorder.

Another group of disorders affects auditory processing. People who have a disorder in auditory processing do not properly process information gathered from sound. Background noises blend in with foreground sounds. Short-term sound information, such as lists or directions that have been spoken, cannot be easily recalled. Some people have difficulty distinguishing similar sounds, particularly words.

Language disorders commonly occur in conjunction with auditory disorders. In fact, the symptoms of this type of processing disorder are similar to or caused by those experienced with problematic auditory processing. Communicating through speech is difficult, especially if auditory information is not processed properly. A person may pause in the middle of words or use wrong words. Stuttering and sound repetition are common as well.

Treatment for processing disorders depends on the area affected. Although some types of processing problems cannot be completely cured, there are treatments to help reduce problems. For example, audiologists can help with hearing difficulties and speech therapists can work with language problems. Various specialists are able to increase function and help improve the sufferer’s quality of life.


Metacognition

As children mature through middle and late childhood and into adolescence, they have a better understanding of how well they are performing a task and the level of difficulty of a task. As they become more realistic about their abilities, they can adapt studying strategies to meet those needs. Young children spend as much time on an unimportant aspect of a problem as they do on the main point, while older children start to learn to prioritize and gauge what is significant and what is not. As a result, they develop metacognition. Metacognition refers to the knowledge we have about our thinking and our ability to use this awareness to regulate our cognitive processes (Bruning, Schraw, Norby, & Ronning, 2004).

Bjorklund (2005) describes a developmental progression in the acquisition and use of memory strategies. Such strategies are often lacking in younger children but increase in frequency as children progress through elementary school. Examples of memory strategies include rehearsing information you wish to recall, visualizing and organizing information, creating rhymes, such as “i” before “e” except after “c,” or inventing acronyms, such as “ROYGBIV” to remember the colors of the rainbow. Schneider, Kron-Sperl, and hünnerkopf (2009) reported a steady increase in the use of memory strategies from ages six to ten in their longitudinal study (see table 3.8.1). Moreover, by age ten, many children were using two or more memory strategies to help them recall information. Schneider and colleagues found that there were considerable individual differences at each age in the use of strategies and that children who utilized more strategies had better memory performance than their same-aged peers.

Table 3.8.1. Percentage of children who did not use any memory strategies by age.

A person may experience three deficiencies in their use of memory strategies. A mediation deficiency occurs when a person does not grasp the strategy being taught, and thus, does not benefit from its use. If you do not understand why using an acronym might be helpful, or how to create an acronym, the strategy is not likely to help you. In a production deficiency, the person does not spontaneously use a memory strategy and has to be prompted to do so. In this case, the person knows the strategy and is more than capable of using it, but they fail to “produce” the strategy on their own. For example, a child might know how to make a list but may fail to do this to help them remember what to bring on a family vacation. A utilization deficiency refers to a person using an appropriate strategy, but it fails to aid their performance. Utilization deficiency is common in the early stages of learning a new memory strategy (Schneider & Pressley, 1997 miller, 2000). Until the use of the strategy becomes automatic, it may slow down the learning process, as space is taken up in memory by the strategy itself. Initially, children may get frustrated because their memory performance may seem worse when they try to use the new strategy. Once children become more adept at using the strategy, their memory performance will improve. Sodian and Schneider (1999) found that new memory strategies acquired before age 8 often show utilization deficiencies, with there being a gradual improvement in the child’s use of the strategy. In contrast, strategies acquired after this age often followed an “all-or-nothing” principle in which improvement was not gradual, but abrupt.


Supersensitive connection causes hatred of noises

A supersensitised brain connection has been identified in people who suffer from misophonia, an extreme reaction to "trigger" sounds.

For the first time, researchers led by Newcastle University, have discovered increased connectivity in the brain between the auditory cortex and the motor control areas related to the face, mouth and throat.

Publishing today, in the Journal of Neuroscience, lead author Dr Sukhbinder Kumar, Newcastle University Research Fellow in the Biosciences Institute said: "Our findings indicate that for people with misophonia there is abnormal communication between the auditory and motor brain regions -- you could describe it as a 'supersensitised connection'.

"This is the first time such a connection in the brain has been identified for the condition."

Misophonia, which means literally 'hatred of sound', is a condition in which sufferers experience intense and involuntary reactions to certain sounds made by other people, referred to as 'trigger' sounds. Trigger sounds are often the sound of someone chewing, breathing or speaking and for sufferers, usually related to mouth, throat or facial activity.

Their reaction is often extreme, and tends to consist of a combination of anger, disgust, fight-or-flight response, sometimes an urge to hurt the person making the sound or to leave the situation.

The condition is common affecting anywhere between 6% to 20% of people. Those with the more severe forms can find themselves unable to tolerate family, work, public or social situations.

Previously, misophonia had been considered a disorder of sound processing. This new research suggests that alongside this there is an abnormal type of communication between the brains hearing centre, the auditory cortex, and the areas of the ventral pre-motor cortex that are responsible for movement of the face, mouth and throat.

In response to trigger or neutral sound, scans on people with misophonia showed that the brain's auditory cortex (hearing centre) responded similarly to people without the condition, however, people with misophonia showed increased communication between the auditory cortex and the motor control areas related to the face, mouth and throat. These motor control regions were strongly activated by trigger sounds in people with misophonia in response only to their trigger sounds, but not to other sound types or in people without the condition.

Dr Kumar adds: "What surprised us was that we also found a similar pattern of communication between the visual and motor regions, which reflects that misophonia can also occur when triggered by something visual.

"This lead us to believe that this communication activates something called the 'mirror system', which helps us process movements made by other individuals by activating our own brain in a similar way -- as if we were making that movement ourselves.

"We think that in people with misophonia involuntary overactivation of the mirror system leads to some kind of sense that sounds made by other people are intruding into their bodies, outside of their control.

"Interestingly, some people with misophonia can lessen their symptoms by mimicking the action generating the trigger sound, which might indicate restoring a sense of control. Using this knowledge may help us develop new therapies for people with the condition."

Tim Griffiths, Professor of Cognitive Neurology at Newcastle University, who is a senior author on the study and also a neurologist, added: "The study provides new ways to think about the treatment options for misophonia. Instead of focussing on sound centres in the brain, which many existing therapies do, effective therapies should consider motor areas of the brain as well."

The team will be further investigating whether this understanding can help develop more effective treatments for misophonia in future.


Neurocognitive Development: Normative Development

Georges Dellatolas , Hugo Câmara-Costa , in Handbook of Clinical Neurology , 2020

Pediatric ataxias ( Table 22.1 )

In Friedreich ataxia, average onset age 10 years according to Corben et al. (2006) , there is evidence of disrupted cerebellocerebral connectivity ( Zalesky et al., 2014 Harding et al., 2016 ) and processing speed deficit ( Corben et al., 2006 Sayah et al., 2018 ). Reports of changes to other cognitive functions are less consistent ( Corben et al., 2006 ). One study reported preserved verbal working memory ( Harding et al., 2016 ) and another preserved visual reasoning, memory, and learning but scores lower than norms at sustained attention and verbal fluency ( Sayah et al., 2018 ). In 20 subjects with ataxia-telangiectasia aged 4–23 years, Hoche et al. (2019) reported an increase of cognitive deficits with age: only mild visual–spatial disorganization in preschoolers but behavioral disorders and spatial and executive deficits in adolescents and young adults. In 34 subjects with nonprogressive congenital ataxia, Steinlin et al. (1998) reported delayed motor and speech development in 100% of the cases and cognitive impairment in a majority (65%).


Auditory processing disorder

What is it?

An auditory processing disorder interferes with an individual's ability to analyze or make sense of information taken in through the ears. This is different from problems involving hearing per se, such as deafness or being hard of hearing. Difficulties with auditory processing do not affect what is heard by the ear, but do affect how this information is interpreted, or processed by the brain.

An auditory processing deficit can interfere directly with speech and language, but can affect all areas of learning, especially reading and spelling. When instruction in school relies primarily on spoken language, the individual with an auditory processing disorder may have serious difficulty understanding the lesson or the directions.

Common areas of difficulty and some educational implications:

Phonological awareness is the understanding that language is made up of individual sounds (phonemes) which are put together to form the words we write and speak. This is a fundamental precursor to reading. Children who have difficulty with phonological awareness will often be unable to recognize or isolate the individual sounds in a word, recognize similarities between words (as in rhyming words), or be able to identify the number of sounds in a word. These deficits can affect all areas of language including reading, writing, and understanding of spoken language.

Though phonological awareness develops naturally in most children, the necessary knowledge and skills can be taught through direct instruction for those who have difficulty in this area.

Auditory discrimination is the ability to recognize differences in phonemes (sounds). This includes the ability to identify words and sounds that are similar and those which are different.

Auditory memory is the ability to store and recall information which was given verbally. An individual with difficulties in this area may not be able to follow instructions given verbally or may have trouble recalling information from a story read aloud.

Auditory sequencing is the ability to remember or reconstruct the order of items in a list or the order of sounds in a word or syllable. One example is saying or writing "ephelant" for "elephant."

Auditory blending is the process of putting together phonemes to form words. For example, the individual phonemes "c", "a", and "t" are blended to from the word, "cat".

Interventions:

First, a few words about interventions in general. Interventions need to be aimed at the specific needs of the child. No two children share the same set of strengths or areas of weaknesses. An effective intervention is one that utilizes a child's strengths in order to build on the specific areas in need of development. As such, interventions need to be viewed as a dynamic and ever changing process. Although this may sound overwhelming initially, it is important to remember that the process of finding successful interventions becomes easier with time and as the child's learning approach, style, and abilities become more clear. The following examples provide some ideas regarding a specific disability. It is only a beginning, which is meant to encourage further thinking and development of specific interventions and intervention strategies.

The following represent a number of common interventions and accommodations used with children in their regular classroom:

Do not rely solely on an area of weakness.

If instructions are given orally, try to supplement this with written or other visual cues. While it is important to address the area of need directly and try to build up areas of weakness, it is also necessary that the student be able to function successfully in the classroom. A simple accommodation like backing up verbal directions with visual or written cues is one way to facilitate this.

Keep the area of difficulty in mind.

Simplifying verbal directions, slowing the rate of speech, and minimalizing distractions can make a big difference to a person with auditory processing difficulties.

Plan specific activities for the areas of difficulty.

There are many activities that can help build auditory processing skills, whether it be in the area of phonological awareness, auditory discrimination, or any of the other areas in this realm. Rhyming games, for example, can help build phonological awareness as well as discriminating between similar and different sounds. Sorting games can help build auditory memory, as the number of variables and steps involved in the sorting can be easily controlled to adjust the level of difficulty.

What to do if you suspect a problem?

The following suggestions are presented in a sequence which should help ensure that your concerns do not go ignored. Of equal importance, this sequence should help avoid setting off any premature alarms, which may not be in the child's best interests.

Write down the reasons you suspect a problem might be present or developing, carefully documenting examples in which the concerning behavior is taking place.

This will help in two ways. First, it will help confirm or alleviate your concerns. If there is cause for concern, it will help you get a more focused idea of where the difficulty lies. This list will also be helpful if further action or meetings with other professionals are necessary.

Speak to the child's teacher and other professionals who interact with your child to see if they see similar behaviors or have similar concerns. If the child is already working with specialists or receiving special education services, a consultation with these people can be helpful in identifying the problem and working out solutions.

If concerns remain, an evaluation by a specialist familiar with these issues could help isolate the problem.

Evaluations can be done through the public schools or through private practitioners. Please refer to NCLD's legal rights packet for a full explanation of your rights, the process, and the school's responsibilities to you. In addition, the evaluation should help identify strengths and weaknesses in general and the therapist should be able to recommend accommodations and strategies to best facilitate your child's learning.

If it is felt that special services or accommodations are warranted, arrange a meeting with the school professionals involved in your child's education to make plans for meeting the specific needs of your child.

In some cases, children meet the requirements to be legally entitled to special services. In other cases, children do not meet the criteria for legal entitlement. In either case, it is the school which will have to arrange and implement these decisions. Legally bound or not, some people and school systems are more responsive to people's needs than others. For this reason, it is important to try to establish and maintain a useful rapport with the people to whom you entrust your child's education. Often there are local resources available to help meet and support the variety of needs which accompany any person and his/her family when a disability is discovered. These organizations often prove tremendously valuable in providing additional resources and strategies which can make the difference between your child receiving the help s/he needs or not.

This information is representative of the materials available from the National Center for Learning Disabilities Information and Referral System

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The Learning Styles of Every Myers-Briggs® Personality Type

One of the questions I get asked the most by teachers and parents is if there is any connection between personality type and learning style. We’re all wired to process information differently. Intuitives prefer conceptual, abstract information whereas sensors prefer concrete, factual information. Extroverted children learn better in groups whereas introverted children generally learn better independently. That said, there are so many nuances and variables between each type and how they prefer to learn and that’s what this post is about! Be warned, this post is looong. Lots of scrolling may be involved!

Not sure what your personality type is? Take our new personality questionnaire here. Or you can take the official MBTI® here.

The ISTJ Learning Style

ISTJs tend to learn best through experience, hands-on practice, and repetition. They like a highly structured learning environment and can absorb information better when they have a steady, consistent routine. They retain facts very well and usually excel in reading apprehension, math, science, and any kind of technical field. In school, they are highly focused on competence, achievement, and consistency. They want clear objectives and expectations, and they will struggle with teachers who are wishy-washy, skip over details, or who have too many vague expectations. They like instructions to be given in a sequential, step-by-step order if at all possible.

ISTJs like plenty of time to think over the tasks in hand independently before joining in a group. They are usually independent, observant learners, although they can do well in small group settings. Large groups tend to make them apprehensive, but they do enjoy the freedom to ask their teachers questions. Theoretical or conceptual subjects should be given as homework for ISTJs, that way they have the time to study the concepts more in-depth and at their own pace.

The MBTI® Manual states that ISTJs are adaptively creative learners. This means that they like to apply existing solutions and techniques to new scenarios and changed situations. They try to do things better each time and focus on perfecting their technique. Adaptive creative types like to create original ideas that are more likely to fit existing models. They are usually systematic, disciplined, and focused on refining techniques and solving problems.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISTJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning. Private school followed close behind with homeschooling in last place. Unschooling had no votes at all.

The ISFJ Learning Style

ISFJs, like ISTJs, like to learn through experience, hands-on practice, repetition, and memorization. They thrive in a highly-structured learning environment where the expectations are clear and the routine is consistent. They like sequential, step-by-step instructions and they like to know that their teachers respect and appreciate them. Regular affirmation by teachers and parents helps them to feel confident in their abilities. They retain details and facts very well and usually excel in reading apprehension, language arts, social studies, and anything with a practical application. They like to learn in a linear style and can get frustrated with teachers who bounce around a lot when they teach, or who skip over details.

ISFJs like plenty of time to observe and think over the tasks and details of their lessons before interacting with a group. Even a few minutes after lectures will allow them some time to reflect and organize their thoughts before they are expected to join into a group activity or brainstorming session. They work best independently or in small groups, but can feel more hesitant in larger groups.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ISFJs get better grades than the average student in high school, and they are rated by psychologists as one of two types least likely to have trouble in school. They are also the second most frequent type among education majors.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISFJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning, but homeschooling followed close behind, with only two fewer votes. Private school had very few votes, and unschooling had no votes at all.

The ESTJ Learning Style

ESTJs learn best by experiencing, analyzing, and memorizing. They thrive in a challenging, highly-structured environment with a consistent routine and clear expectations. They like instructions to be given in a clear, sequential order and they like visual demonstrations as much as possible. They generally will take notes and retain facts and details very well. They prefer linear teaching as opposed to roundabout, abstract teaching that is more likely to be employed by intuitive teachers. They usually excel in math, history, and any form of practical or applied study.

ESTJs tend to do well in group discussion and learning situations. They like to think out loud with their peers and discuss facts and ideas in order to understand the concepts better. They may struggle when paired with perceiving students as these types take a more adaptive, informal approach in contrast to their own focused, structured approach. As extroverts, ESTJs enjoy doing hands-on projects and working with their peers. They are usually quite happy to take a leadership position and organize group discussion and activities.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ESTJs have a high academic self esteem and are left hemisphere learners. They are the most frequent of the types among industrial and technical teachers as well as among vocational teachers. They are also among the four types with the highest overall undergraduate grades.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESTJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning. Homeschooling and private school tied for second place. Unschooling received no votes at all.

The ESFJ Learning Style

ESFJs tend to learn best through collaboration, hands-on experience, memorization, and real-life application. They are happiest in a highly-structured environment where harmony and collaboration are encouraged and fostered. They are usually very hard-working and responsible in their studies, and are quick to pick up and memorize facts. They are careful note-takers, but they are also observant “shepherds” who look around to make sure everyone in the class feels accepted and included. ESFJs tend to enjoy being facilitators in the classroom they like helping out their teachers and coming alongside students who are struggling and giving encouragement. They greatly desire order in their learning environment. They will feel frustrated and unable to focus if their teachers are wishy-washy, vague about expectations, or have an ever changing routine.

It’s very important for ESFJs to feel at home in the classroom and to feel that their teachers respect and appreciate them. They become extremely uncomfortable if they feel criticized, or if they feel that one of their classmates is being criticized. They will lose respect for teachers who are highly critical or who are more focused on competition than cooperation. The harmonious atmosphere of the classroom is just as important to an ESFJ as the clarity of the content being taught.

ESFJs enjoy group activities and often make great leaders, ensuring that each person is heard and involved. They love team projects, building rapport, and organizing a schedule. According to the MBTI® Manual, ESFJs are the most frequent type among education majors and the highest in college retention.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESFJs chose public school as their preferred environment for learning. Private school came in second place, and homeschooling came in last place. Unschooling received no votes at all.

The ISTP Learning Style

ISTPs learn best through hands-on, kinesthetic interaction and straightforward, logical teaching. They are extremely independent learners and enjoy a steep, challenging learning curve. They prefer to have freedom and privacy to study at their own pace. Highly-structured learning environments feel stifling to them and teachers who give long lectures are frustrating for them. They like their lessons to-the-point, direct, clear, and filled with real-life examples. They usually excel in math and practical skills.

ISTPs aren’t particularly fond of group study as a general rule. Competitions and games can be fun for them, but otherwise they prefer to work on their own with their own parameters. They do a lot of their analysis inwardly and are less likely to “think out loud” when solving a problem. For this reason, teachers can think that they are distracted or unfocused when really they are just privately analyzing the information that’s been given.

ISTPs like to learn best in a hands-on, kinesthetic way. Manuals and textbooks are less effective than learning through trial-and-error and experimentation. Unfortunately, ISTPs are rated by psychologists as the type most likely to have trouble in school. This is likely due to the fact that SPs are one of the most underserved temperaments in education. During elementary and high school many of the classes are taught and geared towards SJ (Sensing Judging) children, and in college classes are often taught and geared towards intuitives. ISTPs who eschew structure and tradition and favor independent analysis and hands-on experimentation are rarely given the appropriate environment for their unique learning style.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISTPs chose trade school as their favored learning environment. This was followed closely by homeschooling and then unschooling. Public school and private school ranked lowest in their choices of preferred education.

The ISFP Learning Style

ISFPs learn best through exploration, experimentation, and hands-on learning. Having a harmonious learning environment with a supportive teacher is extremely important to them. They evaluate data according to their values, but they also trust facts and personal experience. They learn best by doing and by getting their hands on things and seeing the real life cause-and-effect of actions. They can usually absorb information better in a colorful, beautiful environment with a friendly, accommodating atmosphere.

ISFPs are highly independent and private learners. Highly structured environments can feel stifling and overwhelming to them, and they prefer a more open-ended, creative approach. They enjoy having one-on-one coaching by a teacher they respect, and they CAN enjoy group activities but they hate being put on the spot or forced into competitions.

Making learning fun and hands-on is extremely important for teachers of ISFPs. They like teaching to be direct and to-the-point and they learn well through visual demonstrations with bullet points, videos, diagrams and charts.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ISFPs chose unschooling as their preferred learning environment. This was followed by homeschooling and then public school came in last place.

The ESTP Learning Style

ESTPs learn best through kinesthetic, hands-on experience and clear, logical instruction. They prefer to be in an open-ended environment where they can get their hands-on things and experiment with a group. They need regular breaks to be active and physically engage with the world around them. This helps them to maintain focus while sitting still for too long can make them distracted and frustrated. ESTPs are inspired by tangible reality and learning environments where they can touch, smell, manipulate, and see objects up close. They enjoy collaborative learning with regular breaks to get up and move around.

ESTPs like instruction to be clear, direct, and logical. They like to see real-life cause and effect of actions and they will be less interested in theory. They will get frustrated with rambling lectures or highly structured environments. According to the MBTI® Manual, they rank higher on deductive reasoning than dominant thinking or feeling types (ETJs, ITPs, EFJs, IFPs). The manual also states that they prefer the academic subjects of history, math, and practical skills.

To make learning interesting and stimulating for ESTPs, it’s best to give them opportunities to solve problems quickly. They also thrive in competitive atmospheres. They are motivated by contests, challenges, and rewards. They want frank and direct feedback and they want to know their teachers are competent and credible.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESTPs chose public schooling as their preferred learning environment, with unschooling coming in a very close second place. Homeschooling came in third place and private schooling came in last place.

The ESFP Learning Style

ESFPs enjoy a hands-on, interactive, harmonious learning environment. Like ESTPs, they need regular breaks to move around and stretch their legs. They will usually excel in a classroom where they are able to collaborate with other students, do plenty of group exercises and projects, and use manipulatives and hands-on techniques as much as possible. They tend to feel stifled in a highly structured learning environment and thrive better in an open-ended, flexible classroom. Unfortunately very few classrooms espouse this style of learning at the moment.

ESFPs learn well in action, or “on the job”. An interesting thing about ESFPs is because they are so affected by their external environment, it’s important for them to be in a place they enjoy to study. They tend to perform better in a place that seems welcoming, harmonious, and aesthetically pleasing. They tend to perform worse in places that seem gloomy, boring, rigid, and/or critical. Academically they are among the highest persisters in college and they rate higher on deductive reasoning than dominant thinking or feeling types (ETJs, ITPs, EFJs, IFPs). According to the MBTI® manual they prefer creative subjects like art, drama, and dance. They also tend to perform well in social studies and practical skills.

ESFPs like to give and receive positive feedback, and this is an important aspect of their learning environment. As children especially they need teachers who show them support and encouragement. They can struggle in their younger years with taking criticism personally, but they thrive when they feel welcomed. They learn best when they are given real-life examples to draw from. As one of the most realistic types, ESFPs like to know the real-world application of what they’re learning and have less patience for theoretical “what if’s”.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ESFPs chose public schooling as their preferred learning environment, with unschooling coming in a very close second place. Homeschooling came in third place and private schooling came in last place.

The INTJ Learning Style

INTJs benefit most from a highly conceptual, theoretical learning style. They tend to enjoy a structured yet open-minded learning environment. Instead of being given step-by-step instructions, INTJs prefer to be given an overview or overarching framework for what they will learn. Then they like to process and complete the tasks in their own way. They make excellent independent learners and also work well in one-to-one settings. They may be hesitant to participate in group discussion because they usually need time to think and process information internally before they are ready to discuss it out loud.

Classrooms that bother INTJs tend to be ones where everything is presented in a very “black and white” format. INTJs like to integrate and explore many different perspectives and are likely to challenge rules or principles that are presented as absolutes. They will often, especially as children, challenge many of the things they learn and be extremely skeptical until they can be sure that whatever “facts” are being presented are actually true. They also struggle in class settings where everything is a group discussion and they aren’t given enough time to privately process the information in their own minds. They like to have a quiet space they can analyze information and create a mental model before interacting with others and presenting what they know.

INTJs aren’t as adept at absorbing facts and details as sensing types are, they tend to learn better through putting together connections and relationships to remember things. Rote memorization and repetition bore them so they usually will try to remember what’s important by developing analogies or acronyms to memorize enough information to pass an exam.

INTJs like teachers who seem competent, open-minded, and logical. They can usually handle constructive criticism very well and they tend to do well in school. According to the MBTI® Manual, INTJs are among the top two types for undergraduate grades. They are also one of two types with the highest first-semester college grades. They have the highest grades among persisters in college and of all the types, INTJs consistently have the highest IQ scores (MBTI® Manual, page 269).

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INTJs chose private schooling as their preferred learning environment, with homeschooling coming in second place, public school in third, and unschooling in last place.

The INFJ Learning Style

Like INTJs, INFJs also prefer a highly conceptual, theoretical learning style. They enjoy having a structure, but don’t enjoy being told exactly how to do something or following the same routine day after day. They prefer being given an overall goal or an overarching framework and then filling in that framework with concepts and supporting facts and meanings. They are systems thinkers and future-oriented planners and are stimulated by complex projects and challenges. They tend to excel when writing essays, where they have the freedom to privately process the information and add thoughts and perspectives in their own way. Their favorite academic subjects are usually art, English, and music.

INFJs try to put together analogies or acronyms to memorize information but will quickly get frustrated in an environment that focuses heavily on rote memorization and repetition. They also tend to bristle at “black and white” rules or teaching. As dominant Ni users they see everything from many different perspectives and shades of gray and tend to be skeptical of hard and fast rules and “absolutes”. While they may not outwardly express their disregard, inwardly they can find themselves turning over objections and exploring many different arguments and then presenting a model or project that contradicts what their teacher was saying.

INFJs excel as independent learners or with one-to-one coaching. They like to have plenty of private time to process information and create a mental image or model of what they are trying to understand or produce. Classrooms where group discussion is prevalent and there isn’t adequate time to think quietly before discussing can be stressful for them.

INFJs enjoy an encouraging, harmonious learning environment. They like criticism to be presented tactfully and they can also take it personally when teachers are critical with other students. They are most stimulated when they know how a concept can help people or humanity in some way and when they understand how academics fit into the bigger picture.

According to the MBTI® Manual, INFJs are one of two types (along with INTJs) with the highest first-semester college grades. They are also among the top four types for undergraduate grades, and among the highest college persisters.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INFJs chose homeschooling as their preferred environment for learning. Private school came in second place, public school came in third, and unschooling came in last place.

Want a comprehensive guide to the INFJ personality type? Check out my eBook, The INFJ – Understanding the Mystic.

The ENTJ Learning Style

ENTJs learn best in a structured, organized, and competitive learning environment. They have a strategic focus when they learn and are always keeping their eye on long-term goals and system improvements. Like other Ni users, ENTJs like structure but they don’t like a rigid routine where they are told exactly what to do. They enjoy being given an overarching framework and a goal and then being able to fill in that framework or complete the goal in their own independent way. ENTJs are very skeptical of authority and have no problem calling out their teachers if they find flaws in their logic or if they can’t back up their arguments with credible sources and facts. They can get caught arguing semantics with their professors and teachers and they tend to feel energized by debate. In fact, they often excel in debate teams or in any setting that allows them to compete.

ENTJs are stimulated by complex and abstract ideas and they are driven to explore the logical frameworks behind these ideas. They are extremely decisive, logical, and focused on accomplishing goals. They have a strong focus on efficiency and can get frustrated with teachers who seem long-winded or rambling in their speech. They enjoy group activities as long as the group is able to stay on task, and they may find themselves naturally taking the lead in these settings as they generally are drawn towards leadership anyway.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ENTJs are among the top four types for college grades, among the highest in college retention, and they have the highest grades among persisters in college. Their favored academic subjects are English and science.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENTJs chose private school as their preferred environment for learning. Unschooling came in second place, public school in third, and homeschooling in last place. At first I was surprised to see unschooling ranked so highly by ENTJs as most extroverts and/or judging types preferred a more structured approach, but this is a testament to the independence of ENTJs and their ability to be self-directed learners.

The ENFJ Learning Style

ENFJs are conceptual, theoretical learners who are always asking themselves “how will this information help or impact people?”. They enjoy a collaborative, harmonious learning environment and are very good facilitators and mentors to students who might be struggling in class or feeling left out. They enjoy having a structure but they don’t necessarily want a repetitive routine. Unlike ESFJs, ENFJs prefer to be given an overarching framework or “end goal” and then find their own unique ways to complete a project or fill in information. They tend to learn new concepts well and they like to find opportunities for personal as well as group growth in the lessons. ENFJs, like other intuitives, want the big picture first. They will get bored if they start with all the details and facts and lead up to the big picture.

ENFJs are very focused on ensuring that there is harmony in the classroom. They are always keeping tabs on how the people around them are feeling and are usually quick to give support to students who are struggling. They tend to study very methodically and are usually on time with their homework. According to the MBTI® Manual, ENFJs prefer the academic subjects of art, English, and music. They tend to be very creative, in fact female ENFJs are among the three highest in one out of two measures of creativity. ENFJs are also rated by psychologists as one of the two types least likely to have trouble in school (along with ISFJs).

ENFJs are very collaborative learners. They enjoy thinking through ideas and concepts out loud with their peers, however they can feel uncomfortable during debates or highly competitive programs. Their natural desire for harmony can impede their desire to win. During group discussion ENFJs are very receptive to the different viewpoints of their peers, but they are also very aware of timing and schedule conflicts and they may take a “supervisory” approach so that everyone stays on task and all the main points are discussed before time runs out.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENFJs chose public school as their preferred learning environment. Private school came in second place, homeschooling came in third, and unschooling came in last.

The INTP Learning Style

INTPs have a very critical, analytical, and conceptual learning style. They prefer independent study more than many other types and are usually skilled self-directed learners. When they participate in a class or course they ask themselves what they are learning and why. They are mainly interested in learning subjects that will help them problem solve, develop an expertise, or theorize. They are apt to ask challenging, thought-provoking questions of their teachers, and because of their ability to spot flaws in logic so quickly they may seem nitpicky to some. If teachers tell them to stop asking questions or just to accept rules based on tradition INTPS will get frustrated.

INTPs are more concerned with meeting their own standards than they are with meeting an external set of standards. They have high intellectual goals for themselves and if the lessons they are being taught don’t align with what they think is worthwhile they will often spend their time thinking about other more stimulating ideas. Grades and scores mean far less to INTPs (and ISTPs) than they do to students of other types.

INTPs typically don’t see a lot of point in group or team activities. They like to quietly analyze a problem without being distracted by other people. They work well alone and are naturally curious about the world around them so they tend to learn by default. They like abstract learning and exploring theories and original ideas. They enjoy branching out in their learning to discover connecting ideas and concepts. They tend to feel stifled in highly structured learning environments and will get bored when having to do a lot of memorization or methodical study.

According to the MBTI® Manual, INTPs prefer the academic subjects of art and science. They also measure three highest on two of three measures of creativity. They are also one of two types (the other being INTJ) who consistently get the highest IQ scores.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INTPs chose unschooling as their preferred learning environment. Homeschooling came in second place, private school came in third, and public school came in last.

The INFP Learning Style

INFPs have a very imaginative, conceptual, and creative learning style. They are often drawn to independent learning or one-on-one coaching environments. They need a lot of time to think and process information privately before speaking or “thinking out loud”. They dislike being put on the spot and they also tend to feel stifled in highly structured environments. They are often gifted students, and according to the MBTI® Manual, they are one of three personality types who consistently get the highest IQ scores (along with INTJs and INTPs).

INFPs can enjoy collaborative learning as long as they’ve had time to get to know the other students and aren’t pushed into the process too early. They will feel frustrated if they are put on the spot or not given enough time to analyze the information internally before being pushed to “perform” or answer questions. When it comes to the subject matter being taught, INFPs are always looking for the value and personal implications of the material. They want to have a personal connection to the lesson and they want to know how the information will benefit them or other people. They have an exploratory learning style and are usually extremely creative when allowed to work at their own pace. They tend to excel in foreign language learning, art, English, and music.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, INFPs chose homeschooling as their preferred learning environment. Private school came in second place, public school came in third place, and unschooling came in last place.

The ENTP Learning Style

ENTPs have a highly innovative, conceptual, and abstract learning style. They look for connections and relationships between concepts and they prefer an open-ended, exploratory environment where they can be free to ask questions. They tend to dislike highly structured learning environments and learning that revolves around lectures, especially if those lectures include a tremendous amount of detail and facts. They learn better if they are given an overarching theme or model that they can fill in with related facts and details on their own. They are attracted to activities that encourage them to integrate, strategize, make inferences, and extrapolate. They can seem debative in the classroom because they will often bring up arguments to the main point, especially if their teacher has a very “black and white” mode of teaching.

Settings with flexible rules, structures, and timelines tend to enhance the learning experience for ENTPs. They enjoy collaborating with other students and swapping ideas, thinking out loud, and coming up with creative projects and solutions. They are very enthusiastic, innovative, and questioning and can help to open the minds of their fellow students (and teachers) to possibilities and potential that could’ve easily gotten missed without them. They excel with teachers who expose them to a broad range of ideas and perspectives.

ENTPs are highly logical individuals and can handle constructive criticism very well. They like to look at problems objectively and are usually skilled at quick problem solving. They tend to struggle with remembering details and facts and can succeed at this better if they organize facts into themes or patterns.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ENTPs are among the three highest on two out of three measures of creativity. They also prefer the academic subjects of art and science.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENTPs chose public school as their preferred learning environment. Unschooling came in second place, followed by homeschooling and then private school.

The ENFP Learning Style

ENFPs have a highly conceptual, imaginative, and abstract learning style. They work well in a collaborative, open-ended environment where they are free to ask questions, bring up related ideas, and brainstorm with their teacher and fellow students. They tend to dislike highly structured learning environments and learning that involves a lot of fact memorization and retention. They perform better when they are given overarching themes and models that they can fill in on their own with related facts and details. ENFPs are especially motivated when they can apply theories and concepts to matters of personal growth and service to others.

ENFPs will be most comfortable with a teacher who takes the time to get to know them and gives plenty of personal feedback. They like to hear many diverse perspectives and viewpoints and they enjoy extrapolating on the subject matter with numerous related ideas and possibilities. They can seem argumentative but this is rarely their goal, they are usually just trying to bring up perspectives that perhaps the curriculum or teacher haven’t considered. Teachers who have a very “black and white” method of teaching or who do things very much by the book can be frustrating for ENFPs, especially young ENFPs.

ENFPs tend to dislike a lot of critical feedback. It’s important that teachers assure them of their abilities before they give criticism. A classroom where they are receiving more criticism than encouragement will be very frustrating for them.

According to the MBTI® Manual, ENFPs are highly represented among third- to sixth-grade academically talented students. They rank higher on deductive reasoning than feeling types, with other dominant intuitive types, and they prefer the academic subjects of art, English, and music.

In a survey I conducted about type and education preferences, ENFPs chose public school as their preferred learning environment. Homeschooling came in second place, followed by unschooling, and then private school.

What Are Your Thoughts?

Do you relate to the learning style for your type? Let us know in the comments!

Find out more about your personality type in our eBook, Discovering You: Unlocking the Power of Personality Type.

Introduction to Type and Learning by Donna Dunning
The MBTI® Manual – A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Instrument – Third Edition by Isabel Briggs Myers, Mary H. McCaulley, Naomi L. Quenk, and Allen L. Hammer
Building Blocks of Personality Type by Leona Haas and Mark Hunziker


METHODS

We focused on creative arts or expressive activities that were conducted primarily in North American and European countries and primarily with adults. We excluded studies focusing on complementary medicine practices. Although the literature in this review targeted adults (aged 18 years or older), many studies have focused on use of the arts with children in various contexts (e.g., sandplay, 11 dance-movement therapy, 12 dramatherapy, 13,14 music, 15 myth to facilitate storytelling and drawing activities, 16 wheelchair dance experiences, 17 mandalas, 18 art therapy during painful cancer procedures, 19 drama therapy, 20 and drawing. 21 ), and other reviews have focused on art therapy and children. 22,23 Also, we excluded articles about art education or art in professional career development. Finally, we did not evaluate the relationship of creative expression with major mental disorders such as schizophrenia or dementia, severe developmental disorders, end-of-life issues, the use of art with incarcerated populations, or the impact of religion on health outcomes.

We assessed how creative expression as a healing process has been used in both clinical and informal practice to promote wellness and healing. We searched the following databases and Internet sites, covering the recent period of 1995 through 2007: Medline (PubMed) for general health care literature Proquest, specifically PsycINFO for psychology journals and CINAHL for nursing and allied health literature the Cochrane Library for health care reviews and the Web of Science database including the Science Citation Index, the Social Sciences Index, and the Arts and Humanities Index. Primary keywords included the arts and medical outcomes, the creative arts and healing or wellness, creative expression and healing or wellness, the arts and health care, creative expression and illness, music therapy, art therapy, and creative expression and humanities.

In the Cochrane Library evidence-based literature, the only studies that included references to art or creative expression were those associated with the treatment of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses 24,25 therefore, we did not include any Cochrane database studies in our review. In addition to the sources just mentioned, specific journals were also targeted because of their connection to art and health: Health Education Research, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Health Education and Behavior, The Arts in Psychotherapy, and the Journal of Music Therapy.

We also searched literature from 1970 to 1995 on PubMed (MeSH art therapy database) to determine whether there were further foundational research articles, but we did not find any abstracts matching our criteria. However, we found 1 randomized controlled trial in PubMed, and we included that study. 26 Because music therapy was observed to be a predominant source of research in the arts and healing, the Journal of Music Therapy was also reviewed for foundational articles. As mentioned, 4 major areas of arts and health care emerged from our review: music engagement, visual arts therapy, movement-based creative expression, and expressive writing. Therefore, we focused on the potential of these creative areas to promote healing.


Research in Visual Perception: The Significance of Face Recognition

In his 1865 book, Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin first proposed an evolutionary explanation for the human fascination with faces. He argued that critical social cues are expressed through facial gestures during situations of extreme fear and excitement, strongly suggesting that the face is an important feature of our ancestral social communication. Today our ability to quickly recognize familiar faces and subtle facial gestures continues to be a source of great interest to anthropologists, psychologists, neuroscientists and doctors. Discovering whether face recognition is a specialized human ability may lead to new insights into how our brain functions.

The act of recognizing a face is actually quite complex. Like many visual stimuli, faces must be accurately recognized in any orientation or lighting condition, and even while moving. But unlike other objects, faces are intimately involved in communication, and our brains must be able to extract a tremendous amount of subtle detail from just a glance. So while some of the issues involved in face recognition are the same as for recognizing any object, other issues are unique to faces. Confronted with this dilemma, is the brain’s most efficient solution to have special mechanisms for face recognition, or to simply extend the abilities of existing object recognition mechanisms?

That question is at the heart of a deep controversy in face recognition research. Studies with monkeys suggest that unique face recognition mechanisms might exist, while brain imaging experiments, studies with babies, and studies of people who cannot recognize faces show evidence supporting both sides of the argument. Compelling questions persist within the scientific community: what exactly are the mechanisms for processing faces in the brain? What compromises must be made for the brain to recognize faces quickly and accurately? And what does that indicate about how the human brain functions in general?

Behavior as a Beginning
Faces enter the human visual experience from the very beginning of life. Studies show that as soon as nine minutes after birth, babies prefer to look at pictures that most resemble human faces. Moreover, young infants have great propensity for mimicking the facial gestures of people around them. Although infants practice many motor skills, these studies show that even at a very early age, humans devote a great deal of attention and energy to the movements required for facial expression. By adulthood, our infantile preferences translate into an ability to recognize human faces better than other visual stimuli. Psychologist Robert Yin conducted some of the first studies that compared recognition of faces with recognition of objects in healthy adults. He found that people recognized faces significantly more often than they recognized objects.

Dr. Yin also uncovered a phenomenon now known as the inversion effect. He demonstrated that his subjects were able to recognize most objects about as often upside-down as they did right-side-up however, subjects had a much more difficult time recognizing upside-down faces than they did with right-side-up faces. Yin hypothesized that images can be processed either holistically (all at once), or feature-by-feature. Furthermore, he suggested that inversion of an image prevents holistic processing, but does not interfere with feature processing. Since Dr. Yin’s subjects showed a compromised ability to recognize inverted faces but not other inverted objects, he argued that faces must be processed in a holistic way, while other objects are processed feature-by-feature.

Yin’s theory of holistic processing became quite controversial, and critics were quick to point out that his studies did not provide any direct evidence of two distinct systems for processing faces and objects. Moreover, skeptics argued that if the brain did process faces in a distinct way, the exact method in which this occurred remained unclear.

Primate Studies
Studies with primates have also suggested that processing faces involves distinct neural mechanisms. For example, measuring the activity of individual neurons in the cortex of monkeys shows that certain patches of neurons in the superior temporal sulcus are activated most strongly when the monkeys observed pictures of faces. On the other hand, non-face stimuli provoked a significant decrease in neuronal activity.

There is also evidence of specialization within these “face cell regions”. Some neurons within the superior temporal sulcus were particularly sensitive to the orientation of the face presented. Certain cells responded strongest to front-views of faces, while others showed more activity when presented with face profiles. Other subsets of cells showed great sensitivity to the direction of the eye’s gaze.

These studies strongly suggest that at least some primate brains have specific neural machinery for processing faces.

Using Technology to Uncover the Neural Mechanisms of Human Face Perception
Technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiological equipment can be used to safely investigate face processing in the human brain. Studies in humans using such technologies also report neural activity uniquely related to viewing faces. These studies suggest that the right hemisphere of the brain may be more specialized to process faces than other objects in the visual field.

In 1997, Nancy Kanwisher and colleagues at Massachusetts Institute of Technology used fMRI to record the brain activity of subjects who were shown a series of faces and common objects. Their research showed that the fusiform gyrus became significantly more active when the subjects were presented with faces than when they were looking at other objects. In 1999, Kanwisher conducted a different fMRI study that looked at brain activity while subjects viewed pictures of human faces and pictures of animals. Kanwisher reported that again the fusiform gyrus became significantly more active when subjects looked at human faces than when they looked at animals. Results from these studies suggest that the fusiform gyrus is a region of the brain specialized for processing faces.

In a 1999 study conducted by Isabel Gauthier and colleagues, a different interpretation of Kanwisher’s results came to light. Gauthier argued that the role of the fusiform gyrus may be to distinguish a specific type of object from any general class of objects, not just faces. Her team used fMRI to record the brain activity of people who were shown a picture of a bird and were asked identify the type of bird. Gauthier’s data showed that the fusiform area is active during this task, a result that differed from previous studies in which the fusiform gyrus was not active when subjects viewed animals. Gauthier’s interpretation of this data is that the fusiform gyrus can distinguish a particular face within the general category of faces, in much the same way that this gyrus can distinguish a particular type of bird within the general category of birds. This interpretation implies that the brain does not have a special mechanisms for recognizing faces, and given the conflicting evidence provided in these two brain imaging studies, it is still unclear whether or not the brain handles face recognition in a unique way.

What Does Prosopagnosia Tell Us?
Clinical studies provide additional information about how the brain processes faces. Since the first documented report in 1962, clinical studies of prosopagnosic patients have contributed significantly to the study of face perception. Prosopagnosics can recognize a face as a face, however, they are not able to link the face with anything they once knew about the person such as their name, age, occupation or relationship.

Often, prosopagnosia is accompanied by impaired ability to recognize other objects such as animals and abstract signs. This fact leads some scientists to argue that prosopagnosia is evidence against a unique brain mechanism for face recognition. But scientists who do believe that the brain processes faces in a special way point out that there have been a few cases of prosopagnosia in which the symptoms were strictly limited to faces. In 1986, Dr. De Renzi reported that one of his patients, a 72-year old lawyer, could discriminate between different kinds of coins, cats and a host of other objects, but displayed a severe inability to recognize familiar faces. This case study proves that the ability to recognize faces can be functionally separated from the ability to recognize any other object, an observation which strongly suggests that face recognition is at least anatomically distinct from other types of object processing.

The Devil is in the Details
So what is it that causes humans to attach special significance to a human face? Our fascination begins at birth, and as adults we remember faces better than any other object. Facial gestures project emotion and are important to how we communicate with each other. But how does the brain recognize and interpret this expressive structure? Time, clever experimentation, and technology will provide new facts, and new facts will continue to provide clues to the mechanisms behind this intriguing neural process.

Interactive Experiment
Test your face perception skills with two interactive experiments one shows the inversion effect, and the other demonstrates how edges, features and surface area affect the process of human face recognition.


Reading Skills, Creativity, and Insight: Exploring the Connections

Studies of the relationship between creativity and specific reading disabilities have produced inconclusive results. We explored their relationship in a sample of 259 college students (age range: 17 to 38 years-old) from three Chilean universities. The students were tested on their verbal ability, creativity, and insight. A simple linear regression was performed on the complete sample, and on high- and low-achievement groups that were formed based on reading test scores. We observed a significant correlation in the total sample between outcomes on the verbal ability tasks, and on the creativity and insight tasks (range r =. 152 to r =. 356, ps <.001). Scores on the reading comprehension and phonological awareness tasks were the best predictors of performance on creativity and insight tasks (range β = .315 to β = .155, ps <.05). A comparison of the low- and high-scoring groups on verbal ability tasks yielded results to the same effect. These findings do not support the hypothesis that specific reading disability is associated with better performance on creative tasks. Instead, higher verbal ability was found to be associated with higher creativity and insight.