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Cerebellum question

Cerebellum question


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Sorry if this sounds at all like pretentious armchair theorizing(it basically is), but I have a question which I can't really figure out how to search. So, given the resemblance of the cerebellum to the brain as a whole, is it possible that the growth of the brain beyond the cerebellum arose from a mutation forcing the growth of a second, "extra" cerebellum? Again, feel free to downvote this into oblivion if it's either obvious or stupid. Sorry again.


I don't have a clear and definitive answer to give to you but first you should have a look about brain development (from:https://www.apa.org/education/k12/brain-function):

And to the function associated to cerebellum:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4346664/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5243918/

And the number of neurons:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776484/

And maybe have a look about difference between species :

http://www.suzanaherculanohouzel.com/comparative-neuroanatomy/

It appear that cerebellum have specific function interacting with the rest of the brain. It present size variations between species from different branch of evolution…


Hagfish, the most primitive vertebrates, do not appear to have a cerebellum, or if they do have one it is very primitive. Hagfish have most of the other structures found in vertebrate brains (including the telencephalon), so it is likely that the cerebellum actually evolved after the other five main brain regions.

It is possible that the dorsal cochlear nucleus, a region on the dorso-lateral surface of the mammalian brainstem, started out as an 'extra cerebellum'. Some fish and amphibians also have 'cerebellum like structures', such as the dorsal octavolateral nucleus. However, the cerebrum almost certainly did not evolve from the cerebellum.


Department Of Psychology – PSY 101 Past Questions (Part 2)

The part of the neuron that receives messages from other neurons is called the
A)dendrite
B)axon
C)cell body
D)synapse

The part of the axon responsible for transmitting messages to the next neuron is the
A)dendrite
B)myelin sheath
C)cell body
D)axon

When positively charged ions enter the neuron,the process is called
A)polarization
B)depolarization
C)semipermeability
D)synaptical transmission

A “flowing storm of ions” characterizes
A)synaptic transmission
B)neural transmission
C)neurotransmitters
D)none of the above

Which of the following chemical substances makes it difficult for messages to be transmitted across synapses?
A)excitatory neurotransmitters
B)inhibitory neurotransmitters
C)regulatory neurotransmitters
D)all of the above

Which of the following transmit messages from the body into the nervous system?
A)afferent neurons
B)efferent neurons
C)association neurons
D)transmittal neurons

The central nervous system is the primary location of
A)efferent neurons
B)afferent neurons
C)interneurons
D)nerves

Which division of the nervous system is composed of all the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord?
A)peripheral nervous system
B)afferent nervous system
C)central nervous system
D)somatic nervous system

All of the following are functions of the autonomic nervous system except
A)breathing
B)voluntary movements
C)sweating
D)sexual arousal

Activation of the internal organs is carried out by the
A)sympathetic nervous system
B)parasympathetic nervous system
C)somatic nervous system
D)all of the above

For what purpose are PET scans and MRI used?
A)observing the process of depolarization
B)observing images of the brain
C)measuring the responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system
D)measuring the sensitivity of the skin’s pain receptors

The hindbrain structure responsible for maintaining muscle tone and coordination of muscle movements is the
A)medulla
B)pons
C)cerebellum
D)thalamus

The hypothalamus is located within the
A)midbrain
B)thalamus
C)medulla
D)forebrain

A small area at the top of the hindbrain that helps regulate sensory reflexes is called the
A)medulla
B)pons
C)forebrain
D)midbrain

If a person’s cerebellum was damaged in an accident,you would expect the person to have a problem with
A)breathing and heart rate
B)seeing and hearing
C)talking and understanding
D)balance and muscle coordination

A small area at the top of the hindbrain that helps regulate sensory reflexes is called the
A)medulla
B)pons
C)forebrain
D)midbrain

According to the text,the most dramatic function of the limbic system is carried out by the
A)hippocampus
B)cingulate cortex
C)amygdala
D)septal area

People who experience Wernicke’s aphasia have had damage to the
A)frontal lobe
B)somatosensory area
C)temporal lobe
D)occipital lobe

The processing of sensory information from the eyes is carried out in which lobe of the cerebral cortex?
A)frontal
B)parietal
C)temporal
D)occipital

The structure that allows communication between the two cerebral hemispheres is called the
A)corpus callosum
B)cingulate cortex
C)reticular formation
D)association area

Research with split-brain patients has revealed the localization of what types of abilities in the left hemisphere?
A)emotional expression
B)recognition of stimuli
C)abstract thinking
D)language expression

Research suggests that positive emotions are more likely to be processed in the
A)corpus callosum
B)left hemisphere
C)right hemisphere
D)amygdala

Which of the following computer terms is analogous to the brain’s interacting system?
A)serial processing
B)parallel processing
C)multiple processing
D)binary processing

The gland that is often considered to be the master gland is the
A)adrenal
B)pituitary
C)gonads
D)thyroid

How are hormones different from neurotransmitters?
A)hormones are chemical messengers
B)hormones are carried in the bloodstream
C)hormones are not regulated by the brain
D)hormones are by-products of neurotransmitters

The gland(s) that produce(s) male and female not allowed hormones is (are) the
A)pituitary gland
B)thyroid gland
C)adrenal glands
D)gonads

Which of the following statements is not correct?
A)Chromosomes contain genes,which are made of DNA.
B)A normal human cell contains 46 chromosomes.
C)A normal gamete contains 23 chromosomes.
D)DNA is made of genes,which contain chromosomes.

How is it possible for two brown-eyed parents to have a blue-eyed child?
A)if both parents contribute a recessive gene
B)if both parents contribute a dominant gene
C)if one parent contributes a recessive gene and one parent contributes a dominant gene
D)It’s impossible for two brown-eyed parents to have a blue-eyed child unless they adopt.

Down syndrome
A)is caused by the presence of an additional 21st chromosome
B)can cause mental retardation
C)causes obvious physical irregularities
D)all of the above

Which of the following characterizes dizygotic twins?
A)They are formed when two different eggs are fertilized by different sperm cells.
B)They are formed by a single fertilized egg
C)They are identical in appearance.
D)They are identical in genetic structure.


Abstract

Cerebellar neuroscience has undergone a paradigm shift. The theories of the universal cerebellar transform and dysmetria of thought and the principles of organization of cerebral cortical connections, together with neuroanatomical, brain imaging, and clinical observations, have recontextualized the cerebellum as a critical node in the distributed neural circuits subserving behavior. The framework for cerebellar cognition stems from the identification of three cognitive representations in the posterior lobe, which are interconnected with cerebral association areas and distinct from the primary and secondary cerebellar sensorimotor representations linked with the spinal cord and cerebral motor areas. Lesions of the anterior lobe primary sensorimotor representations produce dysmetria of movement, the cerebellar motor syndrome. Lesions of the posterior lobe cognitive-emotional cerebellum produce dysmetria of thought and emotion, the cerebellar cognitive affective/Schmahmann syndrome. The notion that the cerebellum modulates thought and emotion in the same way that it modulates motor control advances the understanding of the mechanisms of cognition and opens new therapeutic opportunities in behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry.


Anatomical Structure and Divisions

The cerebellum consists of two hemispheres which are connected by the vermis, a narrow midline area. Like other structures in the central nervous system, the cerebellum consists of grey matter and white matter:

  • Grey matter - located on the surface of the cerebellum. It is tightly folded, forming the cerebellar cortex.
  • White matter - located underneath the cerebellar cortex. Embedded in the white matter are the four cerebellar nuclei (the dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastigi nuclei).

There are three ways that the cerebellum can be subdivided - anatomical lobes, zones and functional divisions

Anatomical Lobes

There are three anatomical lobes that can be distinguished in the cerebellum the anterior lobe, the posterior lobe and the flocculonodular lobe. These lobes are divided by two fissures - the primary fissure and posterolateral fissure.

There are three cerebellar zones. In the midline of the cerebellum is the vermis. Either side of the vermis is the intermediate zone. Lateral to the intermediate zone are the lateral hemispheres. There is no difference in gross structure between the lateral hemispheres and intermediate zones

[caption align="aligncenter"] Fig 1.2 - Superior view of an "unrolled" cerebellum, placing the vermis in one plane.[/caption]

Functional Divisions

The cerebellum can also be divided by function. There are three functional areas of the cerebellum - the cerebrocerebellum, the spinocerebellum and the vestibulocerebellum.

  • Cerebrocerebellum - the largest division, formed by the lateral hemispheres. It is involved in planning movements and motor learning. It receives inputs from the cerebral cortex and pontine nuclei, and sends outputs to the thalamus and red nucleus. This area also regulates coordination of muscle activation and is important in visually guided movements.
  • Spinocerebellum - comprised of the vermis and intermediate zone of the cerebellar hemispheres. It is involved in regulating body movements by allowing for error correction. It also receives proprioceptive information.
  • Vestibulocerebellum - the functional equivalent to the flocculonodular lobe. It is involved in controlling balance and ocular reflexes, mainly fixation on a target. It receives inputs from the vestibular system, and sends outputs back to the vestibular nuclei.

Damage to cerebellum

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Multiple Choice Questions

16. Which of the following is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid:

  1. to exchange nutrients and metabolic waste
  2. to improve conduction of nerve signals between different brain regions
  3. to provide mechanical protection to the brain
  4. to carry neuroactive hormones in the nervous system

17. Which of the following generally acts to conserve energy?

  1. somatic nervous system
  2. peripheral nervous system
  3. sympathetic nervous system
  4. parasympathetic nervous system

18. Broca’s area is located in

  1. the frontal lobe
  2. the parietal lobe
  3. the temporal lobe
  4. the occipital lobe

19. The primary auditory cortex is located in:

  1. the frontal lobe
  2. the parietal lobe
  3. the temporal lobe
  4. the occipital lobe

20. Which of the following is a method for measuring neuroanatomy?

  1. electroencephalography (EEG)
  2. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  3. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  4. positron emission tomography (PET)

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AP Psychology Question 243: Answer and Explanation

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Question: 243

3. In a number of experiments, Elizabeth Loftus has shown that the wording of a question can affect participants' recall of an incident. These studies best illustrate

  • A. the reconstructive nature of memory.
  • B. the serial position effect.
  • C. the rate at which people forget information.
  • D. the role of the cerebellum in memory.
  • E. the influence of hindsight bias on memory.

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

(A) Loftus's work shows that memory is reconstructed that is, a memory is not like an exact replica of what happened but rather is built each time a person thinks about it and is therefore affected by all sorts of extraneous information. The serial position effect refers to the tendency to remember the first and last items in a list better than the ones in the middle. While there is a predictable rate at which information is lost from short-term memory, it is not relevant to this question. Similarly, while the cerebellum plays a role in procedural memory, that fact is not the focus of this question. Finally, hindsight bias, the tendency to think you knew an answer all along after hearing it, does not relate directly to this question.

*AP & Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this site.


Cerebellum question - Psychology

Anytime we are using our coordination – whether taking a shot in golf or just reaching for a coffee mug – the cerebellum is at play. The small structure at the base of the brain is well-known to be critical in coordinating our movements, their precision and timing. But according to a growing body of research, the same predictive abilities the cerebellum brings to motor control also influence language and learning, and may even bring insight into thought disorders associated with schizophrenia.

The cerebellum is “very deceiving – it looks quite small but it’s just jam packed with neurons, in fact well over half the neurons in the entire central nervous system,” said Richard Ivry, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of California, Berkeley , speaking in a plenary session at the American Psychological Association (APA) annual meeting earlier this month in Washington, D.C.

Describing the cerebellum as a beautiful, treelike structure, Ivry said its complex, yet consistent, architecture enables it to make predictive computations over and over again in many different contexts. And, he argued, those contexts go beyond motor and sensory skills, making it a more widely influential structure than previously thought.

Recent research has shown how breakdowns in cerebellum function might contribute to failures in cognition. Patients with cerebellar degeneration or lesions show mild deficits on a range of neuropsychology tests, especially those associated working memory and verbal fluency. Additionally, hundreds of imaging studies have shown activity in the cerebellum that cannot be related to motor demands, hinting at additional roles for the structure.

Coordinating movement

To understand the role that the cerebellum plays in general cognition and learning, Ivry first took the audience through some classic cognitive neuroscience experiments that demonstrate motor control. He held a pen out in front of him and then used his other hand to simply point and touch the pen. For patients with cerebellar degeneration, this pointing task is no longer so simple their hands will tremor and waiver, a classic sign of “dysmetria,” or a lack of coordination.

In other experiments, researchers have used prism glasses, which laterally shift the visual world, to test how our cerebellums calibrate and adjust over time. Donning a pair of prism glasses, Ivry tried the pen pointing task again but missed, as the glasses shifted his perception of where the target was located. But after trying a couple of times, receiving feedback whenever he missed or touched the pen, he was able to adjust and consistently touch the pen. After removing the glasses, his aim was off again, but his cerebellum quickly re-adapted.

“Patients with cerebellar degeneration show poor adaptation,” Ivry said. But in healthy adults, the cerebellum is so good at adapting that it automatically corrects for so-called “sensory prediction errors,” even if it’s maladaptive . In this way, the cerebellum is “dumb,” he said, as it lacks knowledge of higher order information from the cortex. “You can’t turn off the cerebellum learning process,” Ivry said.

In fact, Ivry and colleagues found in a series of experiments that patients who had damage to their cerebellum were actually able to perform better in a targeting task than healthy populations when it required strategic thinking. After consistently rotating a target around a clock, healthy patients had an automatic hand drift that they could not turn off (like in the pen demonstration with the prism glasses): Even when told the winning strategy for reaching the target, they could not succeed. The participants with cerebellar degeneration, however, could implement the strategy without interference from the “dumb cerebellum.”

They also asked patients with prefrontal damage to perform the task, and those participants were unable to correct the automatic drift – showing that prefrontal impairment disrupts the cortex’s strategic function from overriding the automated sensor-motor function of the cerebellum. Yet, Ivry said, it is not so simple – arguing that there may not be such sharp boundaries between the brain regions.

Connections between the cerebellum and the prefrontal cortex could enable the cerebellum to contribute to cognitive function. Research has found that the “neo-cerebellum” – part of the cerebellum that expanded in primates and humans in particular – communicates with the prefrontal cortex, and that could affect everything from language to thought generation.

Coordinating language

One area where these connections may come into play is in language generation, which requires real-time semantic prediction – the ability to anticipate what you want to say and to adapt as the conversation requires, for example, taking turns in speech. In work with Torgeir Moberget and colleagues , Ivry tested whether the cerebellum helps with processing “predictive” sentences, where the context provided by the initial part of a sentence gives clues to what will be at the end of the sentence.

Using fMRI, the researchers looked at how participants’ cerebellum responded to sentences that were either predictive (think: “The pond water was frozen”) or that had a predictive semantic violation (think: “The man ate the railroad”) compared to nonsensical sentences. More activity in the cerebellum would be associated with computations needed to generate the predictions and to detect errors.

They found increased activity in the cerebellum with the predictive sentences and with predictive violations, as opposed to the nonsensical sentences. The data suggest that the predictive function of the cerebellum extends into the language domain.

Coordinating our thoughts


300+ TOP PHYSIOLOGY Objective Questions and Answers

1. Damage to sensory area 1 of the cerebral cortex results in
a) Loss of perception of pain
b) Loss of tactile and two point discrimination
c) Loss of perception of touch
d) Loss of only tactile discrimination

2. Volume of CSF is about
a) 50ml
b) 100ml
c) 150 ml
d) 200 ml

3.Dissymmetria is seen in
a) Extra pyramidal lesions
b) Cerebellar lesions
c) Pyramidal lesions
d) Cortical lesions

4.Floculonodular lobe of cerebellum is concerned with
a) Equilibrium
b) Co-ordination
c) Baroreception
d) Chemoreception

5.In the postnatal period the greatest growth in the grey matter of the C.N.S is of a) Neuron cell number
b) Length of axon
c) Dendritic tree
d) Size of Perikaryon

6.CSF production per minute
a) 0.30-0.35 ml/min
b)0.5ml/min
c)2ml/min
d) 1 ml/min

7.Function of GABA on CNS is
a) Neuronal inhibition
b) Neuronal activation
c) Glial cell inhibition
d) Glial cell activation

8.The EEG rhythm having lowest frequency is:
a) Alpha
b) Beta
c) Delta
d) Theta

9.Medial geniculate body is concerned with
a) Hearing
b) Vision
c) Smell
d) Taste

10.True statement regarding CSF is
a)Daily production < 700 ml
b)CSF analysis rules out active secretion as a cause of formation of CSF
c)It flows from III ventricle to the IV ventricle
d) Produced only by choroid plexus

11. In cerebellar disease, all the statements are correct except
a) The Romberg’s sign is positive
b) There is Adiodokokinesia
c) There is pendular knee jerk
d) There is involuntary tremor

12.Swallowing center is situated in
a) Midbrain
b) Pons
c) Medulla
d) Cerebellum

13.Hyper kinetic syndromes such as chorea and athetosis are usually associated with pathological changes in:
a) Motor areas of cerebral cortex
b) Anterior hypothalamus
c) Pathways for recurrent collateral inhibition in the spinal cord
d) Basal ganglia complex

14. An EEG:
a)Provides indication of intelligence
b)Tends to show waves of smaller amplitude during deep sleep than of alert state
c)Show waves with a lower frequency during intense thought than during sleep
d)Is bilaterally symmetrical

15.The following is true about brain metabolism except
a) Use fatty acid in starvation
b) In resting state 60% of total energy utilized
c) Ketone bodies are used in starvation
d) Has no energy store

16.Satiety center in hypothalamus is regulated by:
a) Gastric dilatation
b) Blood glucose levels
c) Blood insulin leve
d) All of the above

17. In hippocampus EEG waves are
a) Alpha wave
b) Beta wave
C) 65 mm of Hg
b)55mmofHg

18.EEG with spike and dome pattern is characteristic of epilepsy
a) Jacksonian
b) Grandmal
c) Petitmal
d) Temporal lobe

19.Buerger waves (alpha waves) of EEG have the rhythm per sec of:
a) 0-4
b)4-7
c)8-13
d) 13-30

20.All the following are more in CSF compared to plasma except
a)Mg
b)Cl
c)HC03
d) Glucose

21. During light sleep, the sleep spindles that appear have the frequency of:
a) 1 -2/sec
b) 6-12/sec
c) 14-16/sec
d) 21 -26/sec

22.Up to what systolic pressure is the brain capable of auto regulation
a) Dorsomedian nucleus of hypothalamus
b) Ventromedian nucleus of hypothalamus
c) Perifornical region
d) 75mmofHg

23. pH of CSF is:
a) 7.13
b) 7.23
c) 7.33
d) 7.40

24.Temporal lobe lesion causes:
a) Homonymous upper quadrantinopia
b) Homonymous lower quadrantinopia
c) Bitemporal hemianopia
d) Binasal hemianopia

25.Hyperphagia results from lesion of
a) Thalamus
b) Cerebral cortex
c) Ventromedial region of supra-optic nucleus
d) Ventrolateral region of supra-optic nucleus

26. Delta waves in EEG are seen in
a) Deep sleep
b) REM sleep
c) Awake with eyes open
d) Awake with eyes closed

27. Nightmares are seen in
a) REM sleep
b) NREM stage II
c) NREM stage III
d) NREM stage IV

28. Which of the following are true of median eminence
a) Portion of ventral hypothalamus
b) Hypothalamo hypophyseal vessels arise here
c) Outside the blood-brain barrier
d) All are correct

29. Unconscious kinesthetic sensations are carried by
a) Posterior columns
b) Ventral spinothalamic tract
c) Anterior spinothalamic tract
d) Lateral spinothalamic tract

30. Crossed extensor reflex is a
a) Withdrawal reflex
b) Postural reflex
c) Monosynaptic reflex
d) Sympathetic reflex

31.Renshaw cell inhibition is an example of
a) Feed-forward inhibition
b) Oscillating motor activity
c) Circuitry for bio feedback
d) All of the above

32.Arousal response is mediated by
a) Dorsal column
b) Reticulo activating system
c) Spinothalamic tract
d) Vestibulo cerebellar tract

33.All are seen in a spinal reflex except
a) Summation
b) Fatigue
c) Memory
d) Adaptation

34.First change to occur in the distal segment of cut nerves
a) Myelin degeneration
b) Axonal degeneration
c) Mitosis of Schwann cell
d) Sprouting

35.Maximum increase in pain threshold occurs in which phase of sleep
a) Phase I
b) Phase 3
c) Phase 4
d) REM sleep

PHYSIOLOGY Objective Questions with Answers

36.Below pressure, CSF absorption stops
a)60mmCSF
b)68mmCSF
c)80mmCSF
d)50cmCSF

37.Phagocytosis in the CNS is done by
a) Astrocytes
b) Schwann cells
c) Microglia
d) Oligocytes

38.The condition known as REM sleep is:
a)That point at which the individual becomes aware and alert
b)Referred to paradoxical sleep
c) Characterized by total lack of all muscular activity
d) Characterized by slow high voltage regular EEG activity

39.Gag reflex is mediated by cranial nerve:
a)VH
b)IX
c)X
d)XII

40.Hypertonia indicates
a) Upper motor neuron injury
b) Lower motor neuron injury
c) Cerebellar lesion
d) Autonomic imbalance

41.What is not true for respiration center?
a)Situated in the medulla and pons
b)Sends out regular bursts of impulses to expiratory muscles during quiet respiration
c)sends out regular impulses to expiratory muscles during quiet respiration
d)Is inhibited during swallowing and vomiting

42.In brain ischaemia, systemic blood pressure rises, this is called:
a) Monro-kellie doctrine
b) Cushing reflex
c) Auto regulation
d) White reaction

43.Vestibular fibers relay in
a) Vermis
b) Lateral geniculate body
c) Floculonodular lobe of cerebellum
d) Auditory cortex

44.Vomiting center is situated in the
a) Hypothalamus
b) Amygdala
c) Pons
d) Medulla

45. Broca’s area
a) Is situated in temporal lobe
d) It is synonymous to Wernicke’s area
c) Is an area of hearing
b) Is supplied by middle cerebral artery

46.Crude touch sensations are carried by
a) Lateral spinothalamic tract
b) Posterior columns
c) Ventral spinothalamic tract
d) P)tramidal tract

47.One of the following is a function of hypothalamus
a) Swallowing
b) Vomiting
c) Respiration
d) Homeostasis of temperature

48.Blood brain barrier is maximum permeable to:
a)Na+
b)K+
c) Chloride
d)CO,

49.The basic postural reflex is
a) Crossed extensor reflex
b) Golgi tendon reflex
c) Flexor reflex
d) Positive supporting reflex

50.All of the following manifestations are seen in cases of cerebellar damage in human beings except
a) Loss of non-declarative/reflexive memory
b) Loss of adjustment of ve9tibulo-ocular reflex
c)Static tremor and rigidity
d) Ataxia, atonia and asthenia

51.Which of the following reflexes disappear in the absence of functional connections between the spinal cord and the brain?
a) Swallowing reflex
b) Seating reflex
c) Withdrawal reflex
d)Erection of penis
e) All of the above

52. In the Neurohypophysis, secretory granules accumulate in:
a) Pituicytes
b) Nerve endings
c) Intercellular spaces
b) Association fibers

53. Conduction in which type of nerve fibers is blocked maximally by pressure
a) C fibers
b) A-alpha fibers
c)A-Beta
d)A-gamma

54.Prosapagnosia is
a) Inability to recognize faces
b) Inability to draw
c) Inability to count
d) Inability to smell

55. Pain sensitive part in CNS is
a) Durameter
b) Piameter
c) Brain
d) Pial vessels

56.Wallenberg degeneration is seen in
a) Proximal cut end of nerve with cell body
b) Distal cut end of nerve without cell body
c) Both the free ends of the cut nerve
d) All are true

57.When sensory area-I of the cerebral cortex is ablated
a) Perception of pain is completely abolished
b) Perception of touch is completely abolished
c)There is loss of tactile localization but two point discrimination is not bolished
d)There is loss of tactile discrimination as well as two-point discrimination

58.Injection of hypertonic saline into which area causes diuresis
a) Supraoptic nucleus
b) Paraventricular nucleus
c) Preoptic nucleus
d) Posterior pituitary

59.A unilateral upper motor neuron lesion in the internal capsule is best characterized by
a)Diminished use of contra lateral appendages below the lesion
b)Muscle fasciculations
c)Ipsilateral hypotonicity

60. Source of EEG
a) A potential of pyramidal cells
b) A potential of ganglion cells
c)EPSP and IPSP of cortical cells which behave like dipoles
d)After potentials of parietal cortex

61. Decerebrate animal results from the following experimental procedure:
a) Removal of the cerebrum
b) Tran section at the upper border of midbrain
c) Inter collicular transection
d) Section above the thalamus

62.CSF pressure (lumbar)
a)70-180mmCSF
b)50-100mmCSF
c)>200mmCSF
d) 150-250 mm CSF

63.Which of the foUowing sensation is not carried through posterior column?
a) Touch
b) Proprioception
c) Visceral pain
d) All of the above

64. Stereo anesthesia is due to lesion of
a) Nucleus Gracillis
b) Nucleus cuneatus
c) Spinoreticular tract
d) Subarachnoid space

65.Broca’s area is present in
a) Superior temporal Gyrus
b) Precentral gyrus
c) Post central gyrus
d)Inferior frontal gyrus

66.The cerebellum:
a)Has a totally inhibitory output from its cortex
b)Has only excitatory signal output from its deep nuclear layers
c)Has conscious interpretation of motor activity
d)Has inhibitory influence on muscle tone in humans

67.Hypothalamus regulates all except
a) Food intake
b)Temperature
c) Anticipatory rise in heart rate
d) Hypophysis

68.Loss of feel of size & shape of a object is seen in lesions of
a)Tractus solitarius
b) Tractus cuneatus
c) Lateral spinothalamic tract
d)Spinoreticular tract

67.The reticular formation is a diffuse collection of:
a) Only sensory neurons
b) Only motor.neurons
c) Only autonomic centers
d) All the above

68.CSF is principally secreted by
a) Choroid plexus
b) Arachnoid granulation
c) Floor of fourth ventricle
d)Periaqueductal grey

69.Paralysis agitans is accompanied by imbalance of neurotransmitter contents in
a) Globus pa’llidus and substantia nigra
b) Locus ceruleus
c) Putamen
d) Caudate nucleus and subthalamic body

70.In Rrown-Sequard syndrome sensation, that is lost at the same side of lesion is
a) Pain
b) Touch
c) Temperature
d) Proprioception


Conway Psychology

     Extending from the rear of the brainstem is the cerebellum , meaning "little brain," which is what its two wrinkled hemispheres look like.  The cerebellum enables types of nonverbal learning and memory.  However, its most obvious function is coordinating voluntary movement.  If you injured your cerebellum, you would likely have difficulty walking, keeping your balance, or shaking hands. 

Hey, Pinky has a question for you!  

Brain Exerciseن

Review the worksheet provided in the link and answer the activity question listed below:

Question:  What type of memory and learning function does the cerebellum carry out?

       Write your answer in your travel log.

Time to go, gotta keep on schedule.   Pinky sees a light at the end of the tunnel!


Watch the video: 27Ιαν - Ο νευροχειρουργός, Ευρυβιάδης Μπαϊραμίδης στο ΡΣΜ της ΕΡΤ3 (May 2022).